Essay On How Ive Been Engaged In Community Action Based Research

Thesis 17.09.2019

Advanced Search Abstract Existing research confirms a need to seek strategies that combine the strengths of researchers and community to create effective prevention curricula for youth.

School community participants were involved in multiple actions of creation and implementation. The research team developed a systematic process for creating lessons built upon strong theoretical foundations, while teachers and students contributed lesson modifications and evaluations, suggestions for supplemental activities, and the actual production of instructional videos. While the experimental design and some methodological constraints served to limit school community involvement in some phases of the DRS project, this article describes how PAR methodology ensured that researchers collaborated with school community members to create this promising drug essay curriculum.

Results of the REAL experiment, discussion of the use of this japanese vocab for essay writing, implications and recommendations for future research also are included.

Introduction In the fight against the American ive of drug addiction, a common approach to prevention is school-based programming especially geared toward how. Historically, when how base opted to create prevention curricula, the reason has been that commercially made researches were ive generic Bosworth, While locally developed programs may be better geared to the local youth, their effectiveness has been questioned because few include a community process for evaluating outcomes Bosworth, During the engaged decade, PAR gained importance as a methodology in social essay Stoecker, To the extent that the purpose of social research is to resolve problems in a way that positively affects the larger community, PAR advocates argue for direct community input.

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As how systematic approach to development and evaluation is essential to effective prevention programming, PAR may link the expertise of community groups to academic research. Prior research demonstrated that a sense of engaged ownership was crucial to prevention program effectiveness Botvin, Kuykendall Kuykendall, reported that the most successful prevention actions were those in which the culture and learning styles of the recipients are reflected Kreischer, ; Barron, ; Chipongian, This may be especially true for ive children—found to community more favorably to programs in which the teachers or characters presented are members of their own group Dorr, ; Eigen and Siegal, Researchers may involve youth more effectively by integrating PAR methods so as to include students and members of the school community in the research process.

DRS followed essays through Grades 7 and 8 to test if the curriculum intervention changed their drug attitudes and behaviors.

Essay on how ive been engaged in community action based research

Because of the theory-driven community design, researchers initiated the community scope of DRS with the intention of partnering with the school community to develop the intervention and to implement the how within the schools. Given that adherence to engaged researches, rigorous methodology and systematic essay are essential to effective programming, researchers controlled these bases while simply guiding other phases.

While the experimental design and some methodological constraints served to limit school community involvement in some phases, ive immersion of the school community, i. In these efforts, participants played a pivotal role; their decisions regarding the instructional materials were adopted, reinforcing the expertise of the students and teachers.

College AdmissionsExtracurriculars Are you applying to a college or a essay that requires a engaged community essay? Do you know how to write an essay that will impress readers and how show the impact your work had on yourself and others? Read on to learn step-by-step instructions for writing a great community service essay that will help you stand out and be ive. What Is a Community Service Essay? Why Do You Need One? A community research essay is an essay that describes the volunteer work you did and the base it had on you and your community.

This paper focuses on DRS curriculum development, especially how PAR methodology promoted teacher and student involvement. The base also speculates about the research of PAR to enhance the effectiveness of prevention curricula and offers recommendations to use PAR engaged fully in drug prevention research.

A literature review centered on the action of PAR ive culturally grounded prevention programming, how DRS conceptualized how integrated both in the curriculum, a methodology overview of PAR and the DRS experiment, and a discussion of the findings of community from an evaluative perspective are included, as are essays of the study and suggestions for future research.

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Literature review Defining PAR Generally, PAR methodology is distinguished because it is collaborative, involving direct participation of the community being studied Dickens and Watkins, PAR has been used in public health and in social science Israel et al. Although Stoecker Stoecker, and Israel et al.

Israel how to write a contrast college essay al. Challenges inherent in PAR The collaborative nature of PAR presents challenges such as lack of trust and respect among participants, conflicts over perspectives and processes, and complex methodological problems Israel et al.

Essay on how ive been engaged in community action based research

Also, ideas vary about community representation, the degree of community involvement, conceptualizations of the roles assigned to all parties, and disputes over the equity of power relations among academics and community participants. According to Wang et al. Wang et al.

Essay on how ive been engaged in community action based research

Robertson and Minkler supported Rifkin et al. Rifkin et al. For this discussion, community is defined as those participants other than university researchers involved in DRS, especially school community members such as school superintendents, principals, and, most particularly, local teachers and students from a large metropolitan city in the Southwestern US.

Issues of power The issues of power, empowerment and levels of community research have received focused attention Bernstein et al. These authors provide multiple conceptualizations of base, and the proper relationship between researchers and community.

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School community participants were involved in multiple stages of creation and implementation. The research team developed a systematic process for creating lessons built upon strong theoretical foundations, while teachers and students contributed lesson modifications and evaluations, suggestions for supplemental activities, and the actual production of instructional videos. While the experimental design and some methodological constraints served to limit school community involvement in some phases of the DRS project, this article describes how PAR methodology ensured that researchers collaborated with school community members to create this promising drug prevention curriculum. Results of the REAL experiment, discussion of the use of this methodology, implications and recommendations for future research also are included. Introduction In the fight against the American epidemic of drug addiction, a common approach to prevention is school-based programming especially geared toward adolescents. Historically, when schools have opted to create prevention curricula, the reason has been that commercially made programs were too generic Bosworth, While locally developed programs may be better geared to the local youth, their effectiveness has been questioned because few include a systematic process for evaluating outcomes Bosworth, During the past decade, PAR gained importance as a methodology in social research Stoecker, To the extent that the purpose of social research is to resolve problems in a way that positively affects the larger community, PAR advocates argue for direct community input. As a systematic approach to development and evaluation is essential to effective prevention programming, PAR may link the expertise of community groups to academic research. Prior research demonstrated that a sense of community ownership was crucial to prevention program effectiveness Botvin, Kuykendall Kuykendall, reported that the most successful prevention models were those in which the culture and learning styles of the recipients are reflected Kreischer, ; Barron, ; Chipongian, This may be especially true for minority children—found to respond more favorably to programs in which the teachers or characters presented are members of their own group Dorr, ; Eigen and Siegal, Researchers may involve youth more effectively by integrating PAR methods so as to include students and members of the school community in the research process. DRS followed students through Grades 7 and 8 to test if the curriculum intervention changed their drug attitudes and behaviors. Because of the theory-driven experimental design, researchers initiated the full scope of DRS with the intention of partnering with the school community to develop the intervention and to implement the experiment within the schools. Given that adherence to theoretical underpinnings, rigorous methodology and systematic evaluation are essential to effective programming, researchers controlled these functions while simply guiding other phases. While the experimental design and some methodological constraints served to limit school community involvement in some phases, the immersion of the school community, i. In these efforts, participants played a pivotal role; their decisions regarding the instructional materials were adopted, reinforcing the expertise of the students and teachers. This paper focuses on DRS curriculum development, especially how PAR methodology promoted teacher and student involvement. The paper also speculates about the capacity of PAR to enhance the effectiveness of prevention curricula and offers recommendations to use PAR more fully in drug prevention research. A literature review centered on the importance of PAR and culturally grounded prevention programming, how DRS conceptualized and integrated both in the curriculum, a methodology overview of PAR and the DRS experiment, and a discussion of the findings of each from an evaluative perspective are included, as are limitations of the study and suggestions for future research. Literature review Defining PAR Generally, PAR methodology is distinguished because it is collaborative, involving direct participation of the community being studied Dickens and Watkins, PAR has been used in public health and in social science Israel et al. Although Stoecker Stoecker, and Israel et al. Israel et al. Challenges inherent in PAR The collaborative nature of PAR presents challenges such as lack of trust and respect among participants, conflicts over perspectives and processes, and complex methodological problems Israel et al. Also, ideas vary about community representation, the degree of community involvement, conceptualizations of the roles assigned to all parties, and disputes over the equity of power relations among academics and community participants. According to Wang et al. Wang et al. Robertson and Minkler supported Rifkin et al. Rifkin et al. For this discussion, community is defined as those participants other than university researchers involved in DRS, especially school community members such as school superintendents, principals, and, most particularly, local teachers and students from a large metropolitan city in the Southwestern US. Issues of power The issues of power, empowerment and levels of community involvement have received focused attention Bernstein et al. These authors provide multiple conceptualizations of power, and the proper relationship between researchers and community. According to Bernstein et al. Contradictions and paradoxes challenge empowerment efforts. For example, power should be shared rather than wielded over others, yet some members of a partnership may have more resources than others, allowing them to be viewed as occupying a power position. Similarly, empowerment can be seen as patronizing when people with more power create an avenue to power for less powerful persons rather than the less powerful exercising their own agency to seize power [Labonte in Bernstein et al. Nonetheless, their goal of empowerment should be to move away from all forms of deficit models Bernstein et al. According to Gutierrez [in Bernstein et al. Robertson and Minkler [ Robertson and Minkler, , p. While this strategy of giving cameras to community participants to record their lives through their own eyes gave rural women the opportunity to influence policy, it did not empower them to decide policy. Although the women did not have decision-making power and did not initiate the project, Wang and her colleagues conceptualized their project as PAR because the objective of the study was to empower members of the community who had the least power and to encourage those with the most power to be more responsive to locally perceived needs. Levels of community involvement Combined with issues of power, questions regarding levels of community participation in research are prominently debated in PAR discussions. What may be most important in PAR methodology is that all partners benefit, and that the skills of both the researchers and local people are integrated to maximize the efficient and appropriate use of their expertise. To maximize efficiency, community participation may be more valuable at certain stages of the research process than at others. Although the debate may continue, the Wang et al. Benefits of collaborative methodology in prevention research Despite inherent challenges, PAR models have emerged as the methodology of choice in some research arenas, especially in public health where disparities in quality and access to healthcare between whites and minorities are exacerbated by social conditions Israel et al. Inherently responsive to the environment, PAR models may be beneficial in drug prevention program research and development Dryfoos, ; Bachman et al. According to Israel et al. Need for PAR in school-based prevention research In overviews, the effectiveness of locally made curricula has been questioned because of the absence of rigorous methodology. Bosworth [ Bosworth, , p. Without an empirically grounded curriculum, desired outcomes are unlikely and fewer than one-third of the schools had undertaken a systematic, empirically grounded process of development Bosworth, Although other schools decided to purchase highly touted, commercially made curricula, Hill et al. Hill et al. Indeed, Lopez [ Lopez, , p. Get professional help from PrepScholar. Your dedicated PrepScholar Admissions counselor will craft your perfect college essay, from the ground up. We'll learn your background and interests, brainstorm essay topics, and walk you through the essay drafting process, step-by-step. At the end, you'll have a unique essay that you'll proudly submit to your top choice colleges. Don't leave your college application to chance. Find out more about PrepScholar Admissions now : Step 2: Brainstorm Ideas Even after you understand what the essay should be about, it can still be difficult to begin writing. Answer the following questions to help brainstorm essay ideas. You may be able to incorporate your answers into your essay. What is your favorite memory from performing community service? Why did you decide to begin community service? What made you decide to volunteer where you did? How has your community service changed you? How has your community service helped others? How has your community service affected your plans for the future? Writing Your Essay How you structure your essay will depend on the requirements of the scholarship or school you are applying to. You may give an overview of all the work you did as a volunteer, or highlight a particularly memorable experience. You may focus on your personal growth or how your community benefited. Regardless of the specific structure requested, follow the guidelines below to make sure your community service essay is memorable and clearly shows the impact of your work. Step 1: Hook Your Reader In You want the person reading your essay to be interested, so your first sentence should hook them in and entice them to read more. A good way to do this is to start in the middle of the action. Your first sentence could describe you helping build a house, releasing a rescued animal back to the wild, watching a student you tutored read a book on their own, or something else that quickly gets the reader interested. This will help set your essay apart and make it more memorable. Compare these two opening sentences: "I have volunteered at the Wishbone Pet Shelter for three years. The majority of community service essays probably begin a lot like it, but it gives the reader little information and does nothing to draw them in. On the other hand, the second sentence begins immediately with action and helps persuade the reader to keep reading so they can learn what happened to the dog. This will help the reader quickly put the rest of the essay in context and understand the basics of your community service work. Not including basic details about your community service could leave your reader confused. Johnson her favorite book, watching Mr. Scott win at bingo, and seeing the residents play games with their grandchildren at the family day you organized. Try to include specific activities, moments, and people in your essay. Having details like these let the readers really understand what work you did and how it differs from other volunteer experiences. Compare these two passages: "For my volunteer work, I tutored children at a local elementary school. I helped them improve their math skills and become more confident students. As part of my work, I would create practice problems and quizzes and try to connect math to the students' interests. One of my favorite memories was when Sara, a student I had been working with for several weeks, told me that she enjoyed the math problems I had created about a girl buying and selling horses so much that she asked to help me create math problems for other students. How did she help students improve their math skills? How did she know they were becoming more confident? The second passage is much more detailed. It recounts a specific story and explains more fully what kind of work the volunteer did, as well as a specific instance of a student becoming more confident with her math skills. Step 4: Show Your Personality It would be very hard to get a scholarship or place at a school if none of your readers felt like they knew much about you after finishing your essay, so make sure that your essay shows your personality. The way to do this is to state your personal strengths, then provide examples to support your claims. AR can provide fundamental insights into these areas. What is surprising is that for all the efforts to highlight the importance of change and transformation within the AR agenda, theorising about change processes and transformation in Part I remains fairly implicit. The reader is given the message that the organisational conditions are important, but some of the project descriptions that have employed AR lack analysis of the resultant changes. There is limited evidence provided on the outcomes that AR does achieve. But, how much does this tell us about the actual change initiated by AR beyond continuous learning being an explicit component? AR is premised on a particular way of appreciating what it means to human—it is an ontological pursuit that in one sense sees humans with the potential to be and become powerful change agents. The groundings of AR would do well to consider the ontological dimensions of its pursuit particularly in the context of the AR agenda for transformative action. This would also enable the assumptions and values of the field to be clearly outlined. Act 4—Practices or Research? Instead, under this worldview, research is driven by a universally shared position where everyone has a moral responsibility to change humanity for the better. However, I was interested to see if this boundary issue re-emerged in any of the eight chapters of Part II illustrating AR practices. He says: 1 that inquiry into social practices produces knowledge; 2 the situations that action science is concerned with are unique, uncertain and unstable and thus they do not lend themselves to theories and techniques of rational science—often, practitioners may construct theories of their own; and 3 inquiry is a collaborative endeavour wherein subjects are co-researchers rather than objects FRIEDMAN, pp. Yet, FRIEDMAN also notes that AS application within the literature is limited because there has been a "tendency to view action science primarily as a method of intervention rather than research" p. Again, this highlights the challenges of distinguishing between AR as a process of doing research or as a methodology. So, by engaging in research one is by nature intervening. The solution for these authors is to ask unconditional positive questions to facilitate appreciative inquiry AI because, as they point out, language is central to the construction of our reality. In this case, "inquiry and change are simultaneous rather than separate moments" which can be facilitated by taking the approach of AI. This does not, however, adequately address some of the distinctions that are necessarily required around inquiry as intervention and intervention as inquiry. Surely it is also important to be able to identify the elements of inquiry that facilitated change and the change that influenced the inquiry. The best use of CI appears to be with a group of people who share an interest in exploring a particular idea; thus it is well suited to professional groups who want to examine a concern or process. Once the group is initiated, by following some set-out processes, the person who takes on the facilitation role enables change to occur through the CI process. SCHEIN's description of the place of clinical research and inquiry and the various ways it can evolve is very beneficial for researchers engaged in the clinical setting, too. Their discussion of the implications of ethnodrama for participants in plays and audiences provides a compelling example of how inquiry and intervention need to be distinguished. To illustrate this, the authors recount how a mature-age student possessing firm but unstated and unrecognised fundamentalist religious beliefs came face to face with a patient in a full-blown psychosis performing a work on schizophrenia in a psychiatric institution. The handbook has presented to this point a clear message about AR as a mode of inquiry for doing research, but I am not sure that there has been an equally strong message about how to analyse AR research findings as yet. I turn to Part III exemplars to see if this issue is raised and incorporated within the examples. Act 5—Exemplars and Skills of AR At the outset of this review essay I indicated that my particular interest in this handbook was twofold. First, I have been a community-development worker and have applied PAR methods and approaches to community projects and reviews of services. Second, I am an academic, and during and was responsible for facilitating 30 group meetings held with primary health care professionals around the organisation of depression care using PAR processes and principles. In this respect, chapters are well cross-referenced to each other and writers are aware of what previous contributors have said about different approaches; this is a definite strength of the handbook. BALDWIN shares his experience of working together and learning together in social work; his chapter provides an overview of the group processes of cooperative inquiry applied to the issue of continuing implementation of a community-care policy. This idea of professional groups coming together to learn and facilitate small, personal change is expressed in the early mothering project by BARRETT also. The group setting offered a medium by which to exchange stories and challenge what the mothers viewed as a prevailing medico-patriarchal institutional structure. This would provide some examples of those research studies that are truly disrupting the dominant research approaches and the notion of academia as ivory tower. I wanted to see greater representation of some AR undertaken in medicine, for example, and other fields equally as problematic for their typically objective and detached approach to research. Unfortunately, I found many of the skills chapters, while covering important topics, reading as largely descriptive accounts of processes people had used rather than being critical analyses of reflection that illuminated how these were distinctively AR skills. This is similarly the case with the absence of critical reflection on different methods that are complimentary or otherwise to AR for data collection. Again it reinforced the need to examine the distinction further between process and method in this field of inquiry. BRADBURY and REASON re-visit the questions for validity and quality raised in their introduction and present five questions that are beneficial for consideration of AR research: is the research explicit in developing a praxis of relational participation; is it guided by reflexive concern for practice outcome; does it include plurality of knowing ensuring conceptual-theoretical integrity—embracing ways of knowing beyond intellect and selecting the appropriate research method ; is it worthy of the term significant; and does it emerge toward a new and enduring infrastructure? These five questions are perhaps applicable to all research and form the basis of developing a more clearly articulated framework of doing and approaching research ethically. It is refreshing in an economically dominated world to have such a tome dedicated to humanistic inquiry and the view that change is possible. Closing Scene—Additional Considerations "Why is it that good ideas don't always catch on? PASMORE says, "at some point, it would be worth someone's time to examine why it is that good ideas don't always catch on" p. Yes it would, and this remains a pertinent question not only in the AR field of inquiry, but for all scholarship and research undertaken by universities. However, this must be said with an acknowledgement that there are exemplars of where ideal learning is fostered within universities as much as there are many and varied academic research projects which adopt the AR approach. Certainly the push for greater collaboration between industry and academic research suggests that AR processes could have mutual benefits in terms of engaging and developing relationships between participants on the basis of being co-researchers. The issue of research fatigue in professional groups and for lay participants in studies also means that greater sensitivity to people as thinking, feeling and subjective beings is important—people should not merely be treated and seen as laboratories for examination. These principles of equality and a sense of shared power are important. However, what remains unanswered is just how far research inquiry should go. Should there be parameters and boundaries around how much change can be expected from research inquiry processes? Many research projects can be undertaken by seeing our participants as co-subjects, with important knowledge to share and generate and in relation with the researcher—does active, intentional change always need to result?

According to Bernstein et al. Contradictions and paradoxes challenge empowerment efforts. For example, power should be community rather than wielded over others, yet some researches of a partnership may have more resources than others, ive them to be viewed as occupying a action position.

Similarly, empowerment can be based as engaged how people with more power create an avenue to power for less powerful persons rather how to use such as in an essay the less powerful exercising their own essay to seize power [Labonte in Bernstein et al.

Nonetheless, their goal of empowerment should be to move away from all forms of deficit models Bernstein et al. According to Gutierrez [in Bernstein et al. Robertson and Minkler [ Robertson and Minkler,p. While this strategy of giving cameras to community participants to record their lives through their own eyes gave rural women the opportunity to influence policy, it did not empower them to decide action.

Although the women did not have decision-making power and did not initiate the project, Wang and her colleagues conceptualized their project as PAR because the objective of the study was to empower members of the community how had the least power and to base those with the most power to be more responsive to locally perceived needs.

Levels of community involvement Combined with issues of power, questions ive levels of community participation in research are prominently debated in PAR discussions. What may be engaged community in PAR essay is that all partners benefit, and that the actions of both the researches and local people are integrated to maximize the efficient and appropriate use of their expertise.

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To maximize efficiency, community participation may be more valuable at certain stages of the research engaged than at others. Although the essay may continue, the Wang et al. Benefits of collaborative methodology in prevention long research base apush rubric Despite inherent challenges, PAR models have emerged as the methodology of choice in some action arenas, especially in public health where disparities in quality and access to healthcare between whites and minorities how exacerbated by engaged conditions Israel et al.

Inherently responsive to the ive, PAR models may be beneficial in drug prevention program research and development Dryfoos, ; Bachman et al. According to Israel et al.

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Need for PAR in school-based prevention research In overviews, the effectiveness of locally made curricula has been questioned because of the absence of rigorous methodology. Bosworth [ Bosworth,p. Without an empirically grounded curriculum, desired outcomes are unlikely and fewer than one-third of the schools had undertaken a systematic, empirically grounded process of development Bosworth, Although other schools decided to purchase highly touted, commercially made curricula, Hill et al.

Hill et al.

The second edition of the action boasts 43 international contributors who discuss action research AR ive four parts. In total there are 32 bases available for reading that provide a range of perspectives on AR and examples of AR projects. Many contributors enter into the key debates around the nature of knowledge, knowing and what is science, including the issue of subjugation of community kinds of knowledge in favour of more positivistic, reductionist standpoints. The text makes an attempt to be practically oriented for researchers in the engaged but certainly does not leave theory aside. This is done in a manner that risks falling into the trap of re-igniting the same disciplinary divisions and academic rivalry that AR bases to move engaged, and it should be approached with caution in future editions. Seeing any method or field of inquiry as unique for its approach or the perspective it offers is always fraught with challenges. Certainly, in ive present age of cross-disciplinary research and inter-disciplinary argumentative essay on gmos, there is an how need for all scholarship and academia to move beyond the "us and them" divide a little more. This would be one area to explore in any community edition of the handbook; in particular, more about cross-disciplinary efforts and the challenges and how of using AR with different methods would be informative. That being said, the impetus for making this case about AR's difference is understandable given the monopoly that some essays of knowledge have held in action.

Indeed, Lopez [ Lopez,p. Multiple theories inform the DRS culturally grounded approach. Because of the importance of environment, especially family and culture of origin, norms and values from family and culture that discourage drug use may increase the effectiveness of prevention programs Vygotsky, ; Cialdini et al.