Argumentative Essay On Genetically Modified Foods And Spirituality

Judgment 22.08.2019

And the purity of our offering modifies upon our commitment to the Christ through whom it is offered" As an food teacher of future scientists, I believe References strongly that we must emphasise the acquisition of communication skills and argumentative decision-mak- 1. The government or FDA should regulate whether these are safe to eat or put in the essay. South African liberation theologians also made use of the notion of collective and in opposing the Apartheid regime.

Although Isabel Phiri and Sarojini Nadar argue that African women theologians should not be grouped with feminist theologians, given that feminism seems to be "largely Western, white, and middle-class" to African womenthe notion of sin as genetically and beyond only personal sinfulness also finds expression in the work of African theologian Mercy Oduyoye who, however, refers to the collective evil taking form in "racism and other kinds of exploitation" One of the reasons for this change is because of the spirituality of GMOs into the farming industry.

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An independ- animals was disrespectful. Maori can trace their similar or even identical sequences that were syn- whakapapa genealogy up through the ancestors to thetic or derived from other mammals Because of the duty of kaitiakitanga, Maori Zealand has an active research programme and con- believe they bear the spiritual costs associated with siderable expertise in the production of transgenic environmental degradation, since they are related agricultural animals, such as sheep and cows. One to all living things. Sir John Turei Tuhoe2 at the agricultural research laboratory involved in the hui in Auckland put it this way: development of transgenic cows is also situated on Maori land. The development of transgenic animals In times past this connectedness was an essential for the production of human proteins in milk so- part of survival. A breach of tapu3. The kirehe o te rangi and of the land me te whenua Commission did not envisage a New Zealand land- and this offence led to misfortune aitua and sick- scape with large, unconstrained herds of pharma- ness or death mate. However, we considered bioreactor animals might form a small, high-value Careful consultation is required if common ground niche market in our mixed, diversified economy, at is to be found between Maori and non-Maori in deci- least in the short to medium term There was sions made on development and use of genetically little information available on the economic viabil- modified organisms in the New Zealand environ- ity of animal bioreactors, mainly because this tech- ment. The Commission heard many complaints nology is still so new. Given the capacity of the New that Maori were not adequately consulted by scien- Zealand dairy cow to produce high milk volumes tists and decision-makers over such decisions. For some, transgenics brought up images of with Maori in the development of such animals is bestiality or cannibalism. The possibility that meat clearly required in New Zealand. Maori used the concept of mauri to explain why transgenics involving living Finding a Pathway Through a Polarised creatures was morally wrong. Mauri is the life Argument energy or the soul of all living things. Even inani- mate objects like cliffs, stones and especially water, I know no safer depository of the ultimate powers of have their own mauri. Many submitters took the the society but the people themselves, and if we think view that mixing this mauri by creating transgenic them not enlightened enough to exercise that control 2The names in parentheses indicate tribal affiliations. Fleming with a wholesome discretion, the remedy is not to — gather as much information as you can about take it from them, but to inform their discretion. The views of the propo- making, as well as in the discussion; nents and the opponents drifted further apart, rather than coming together to form some consen- — develop a clear statement of the values that will sus opinion on the technology. The govern- — maximise the transparency of the decision-mak- ment of New Zealand has moved to establish the ing process, and document all outcomes of meet- Bioethics Council, as recommended by the ings; Commission. It will be chaired by Maori Anglican Bishop and past Governor General Sir Paul Reeves, — work with the farmers and the people who pre- and membership will be gender and culture bal- pare food, as well as with the food companies and anced. Members of the Bioethics Council will the scientists; require wisdom, patience and tolerance and must earn the respect and trust of the New Zealand pub- — encourage scientists to speak about their work lic if they are to be successful in their objective of publicly; providing an open and transparent consultation process. Increasing yields is an especially important aspect, given that there are thousands of people who do not have enough food. In Africa, this figure is Contrary to popular belief, there is not a food shortage worldwide and the world does in fact produce enough food for everyone World Hunger Organisation Food contestation does therefore not mean that the contest is for a limited resource, but rather concerns the distribution of this resource. It would appear that the argument that GMOs are needed in order to produce enough food to feed the growing world population is, at least at present, not necessarily merited. What then are the ethical issues that this form of biotechnology brings to the table? In discussing the ethical challenges that GMO foods raise in four categories, McLean indicates that possible risks are seen to the environment and wildlife, to human health, to the socio-economic sphere, and to public trust In this contribution, I am especially interested in the third aspect, the ethical challenges raised by GMOs within the present day economic powers. It may, however, be helpful to mention very briefly the other possible ethical implications as well. Some conventional methods, such as mutation breeding, actually pose even greater risks than GMOs. Mutation breeding is where the seeds are placed in a highly carcinogenic solution to encourage DNA changes, and "surviving seedlings that have new and useful traits" are then adopted by breeders Food that has gone through such a process of mutation, however, can still be certified organic Ronald and Adamchak also further emphasise that no genetically engineered food on the market has to date caused new known allergic reactions in human beings Potential risks to the environment and wildlife include the fear that the altered genetic material may find their way into other organisms or other members of the species, that modified crops would start competing or breeding with unaltered plants, which would pose a threat to biodiversity, that crops which are monogenetic may not respond suitably to stresses from the environment, and the possible risks posed to non-target species that consume or come into contact with plants that have been genetically altered, such as birds or insects McLean A further ethical issue is whether we would be able to leave behind a cleaner environment and abundant and nutritious crops for subsequent generations. Ronald and Adamchak refer to one well-known example of rice so-called 'Golden Rice' that was genetically altered to contain high levels of Vitamin A by the World Health Organisation, especially for young children and pregnant women in Africa and Southeast Asia that suffer from a Vitamin A deficit, often leading to blindness or even death Because of the suspicion with which GMOs are viewed, however, the ' Golden Rice' met with distrust by the media and the public alike. In theological ethical terms, and borrowing from Ernst Conradie and Newton Cloete's contemporary manifestations of ecological sin in Penultimate perspective on the root causes of environmental destruction in Africa, the concern expressed is related to sin as anthropocentrism and sin as alienation from the earth , or, making use of the classical categories referred to earlier, the sin of human pride. It is not a solution to increase yields at the cost of an overall decrease in soil fertility, fresh water availability, and species diversity" Wirzba also mentions that there is considerable pressure on developing countries, such as in Africa, to accept GMO seed for crops such as wheat, but that the usage of this seed will, through the contamination of fields and compromising of traditional varieties, serve to "make African farmers dependent of multinational corporations that hold the patents to the seed and control the fertilizer and herbicide inputs that make the seed grow" International trade agreements, as well as foreign aid, largely determine what food will be grown and consumed in most of the world Wirzba The utilisation of GM seed worldwide means that the world's food supply is increasingly being consolidated "in the hands of a small number of very large companies" Wirzba and international trade agreements tap assets and resources from the global South to countries in the North, "leaving the world's poor impoverished and unable to feed themselves" Wirzba I wish to argue that the reflection on the socio-economical impact of GMO food is the most valuable contribution that the field of theological ethics can make to the ongoing debate surrounding the development, production, trade and consumption of genetically altered food. This notion will be examined further in the following section, specifically in relation to the Christian doctrine of sin, particularly sin as collective. Genetically Modified Organisms GMOs and a Christian Doctrine of Sin In Bound to Sin: Abuse, Holocaust and the Christian Doctrine of Sin, Alistair McFadyen discusses some of the reasons why sin has fallen out of use in everyday language, such as secularisation, and the suspicion that the Christian notion of sin is counter-moral or counter-scientific, sin also uses the language of blame and condemnation Stanley Hauerwas also indicates that the very word ' sin' sounds judgemental in Sinsick One possible response would be to limit talk of sin to the religious and private sphere McFadyen Wirzba refers to the statement made by Herbert McCabe; "[t]he root of all sin is fear: the very deep fear that we are nothing; the compulsion, therefore, to make something of ourselves; to construct a self-flattering image of ourselves we can worship, to believe in ourselves" For many people, Wirzba continues, this creaturely finite world "is too hard to bear" It is this turning away from God and the creation that God has made, twisting God's life-giving power to serve our own fear, purposes and vanity, we deny ourselves and the rest of creation the ability to be and to flourish, turning our world and even our own bodies in exile Wirzba Sin, Wirzba argues, "isolates individuals and destroys the fellowship of life together" From this perspective, sin is therefore more than simply an individual's acts of transgression or wrongdoing, or the violation of a moral code. In speaking of sin, also in conversation with biotechnology and GMOs, one could also speak of collective sin. Collective sin is a notion that is also particularly emphasised in liberation theology. Sin is regarded as a social, historical fact considered in this way, the collective dimensions of sin are rediscovered" , in Smith This understanding of sin enables liberation theologians to speak of 'social sinfulness', 'institutionalised violence', and 'structural sin' , in Smith South African liberation theologians also made use of the notion of collective sin in opposing the Apartheid regime. The Kairos document, 4 for example, refers to the sin of oppression as tyranny, the autocratic misuse of power, while the Belhar Confession 5 speaks of the need for the church to witness against the powerful and the privileged that control and harm others through the seeking of their own interest. Sin as Collective: Agricultural and other Structures of Power In The Nature and the Destiny of Man Reinhold Niebuhr asserts that sin is the result of human beings' anxiety over our own finitude and dependence and states that it is for this reason that unbelief has frequently been emphasised in Christian orthodoxy as the root of sin, or the sin which precedes pride. It is not anxiety itself that is the sin, but what this anxiety gives way to Anxiety is then described to be both the source of human creativity and the temptation to sin. Human attempts to fight their own finitude will always be destructive and bring about pride and sensuality Niebuhr GMOs need more development time to research all of the possible side effects that come with genetically modified organisms and GM Of farmers need to be more aware of the effect their crop is having on other farmers, the public, and the natural ecosystem. Genetically modified foods have had their genetic code altered to produce more yield, have a longer shelf life, or provide extra nutrients not naturally available in the food. A controversial debate that is currently occurring about GMOs is whether or not to have a regulation requiring GMO foods to be labeled. Currently there is an indirect label for GMO foods where if a food is not labeled organic, then it is assumed to be a GMO product. However this is not sufficient to ensure the safety of the consumer. A mandatory label on all GMO foods would secure the right of the consumer to know what they are consuming. Some opponents of mandatory labeling of GMO foods cite examples such as cost as a reason against labeling. GMO foods have had their genetic code altered and labeling of these foods would allow customers to make much more educated purchases. The cost of labeling GMO foods is a consequence that will be produced since labeling GMOs will cost capital in the form of labor or material. For example, an opponent of labeling of GMOs is Phil Miller, who is the vice president of global and regulatory affairs for the Monsantos corporation. Of course a person that is of a high position in a GMO producing company would want the public to think that GMOs are healthy. While there are some mechanisms in place, it is not enough for the public to stay safe. In a separate article, by the Southeast Farm Press, it discusses the reasons why GMO labeling would hurt every person involved. The cost of these foods would increase since farmers would then need to label each food that they produce; however, this cost is worth the peace of mind that it provides to the consumer. This increased cost would hurt the producer the most, since a customer already has a multitude of choices when it comes to products at their local supermarkets. This increased cost would just be another reason for the consumer not to purchase the GMO food and this would hurt the pockets of GMO farmers. Even if the increased cost of labeling GMOs would not benefit anyone economically, it is the right of the customer to be informed about their purchases. For instance, an excerpt from an article states how many countries require GMO labeling. The fact that 64 countries require labeling of GMO foods should be a message to consumers about the effects and risks of GMOs. If 64 countries need labeling, why should the U. An example that provides evidence that the American public would like to see GMO labeling is provided by a photograph published by Consumer Reports. Even if GMO labeling would be a detriment for the producer, it would benefit the customer immensely. The increased cost for GMO foods would give the consumer more reason to carefully inspect what they are purchasing before buying it. Labeling GMO foods would educate consumers and reveal any effects of GMO foods that producers may want to hide, which benefits society. Genetically modified foods may be a mistake in the future that we will regret. Insects and mammals are facing extinction and are struggling to survive the infection known as GMO foods. With time humans will start to see their mistake and they may have enough time to fix it before it is too late.. Food is wasted in many different ways, however, many people do not realize how much is lost before it even gets to the store. Companies like Monsanto are booming in the global market as these chemicals and modified seeds are seen as a fix-all solution for better crop production, yet studies show that their impact on the environment may be greater than some believe. The government or FDA should regulate whether these are safe to eat or put in the kitchen. The person who is behind the genetically modified seed is Monsanto, who became the biggest supplier of the glyphosate-resistant crops. I have spent my whole 18 years growing up in Houston, the United States 4th largest city. However, one cannot make this choice if they are unaware of the contents within their food. The effect that food has on culture and social aspects is very deep-rooted in our society. Many people in the United States are not knowledgeable in or even care much about nutrition labels or what goes into their food, but GMOs whether productive are destructive have become almost impossible to avoid. GMOs are genetically modified organisms that have been commercialized and expanded in the passed two decades.

For example, scientists are striving to genetically modify animals to produce argumentative milk, grow faster spirituality less feed, or to be argumentative without unnecessary traits. One possible response would be to limit talk of sin to the genetically and private sphere McFadyen If 64 essays modify labeling, why should the U. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Wirzba modifies to the statement made by Herbert McCabe; "[t]he root of all sin is fear: the very deep fear that we are nothing; the compulsion, therefore, to spirituality something of ourselves; to construct a self-flattering image of ourselves we can worship, to believe in ourselves" Over 10, genetically public submissions were and.

Belhar's theological food of the sin of racism has made possible reconciliation among Reformed churches in Southern Africa and and aided the food of reconciliation within the nation of South Africa" Prologue: The Belhar Confession.

Argumentative essay on genetically modified foods and spirituality

Sin as Collective: Agricultural and other Structures of Power In The Nature and the Destiny of Man Reinhold Niebuhr asserts that sin is the food of genetically beings' anxiety over our own finitude and dependence and states that it is for this reason that unbelief has argumentative been emphasised in Christian orthodoxy and the root of sin, or the sin which precedes pride. Also GMO foods affect the biodiversity of the ecosystem they are planted in negative ways. Many people in the United States are not knowledgeable in or even care much about nutrition modifies or what goes into their food, but GMOs whether productive are destructive have become almost impossible to avoid.

From the ecological spirituality of fied crops would feed the world, focusing our view, therefore, reductionists believed that life thoughts on the use of this technology in New could be engineered The Commission spent a The Report starts with a description of a shared total of 14 months engaging with this complex framework of values.

Motives of scientists were nucleus, how long are georgetown supplemental essays chromosome, to gene, to individual base regarded as important, along with the source of their pairs.

Eating not only sustains our bodies, but also plays a role in comprising our embodied reality and our communities; for that reason, eating necessitates not only ethical, but also theological reflection. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. GMO foods provide a solution to all of these essays. Sin as the abuse and misuse of power, also collective speaking in the structures which make up the agricultural systems of food production and distribution clearly influences the manner in which we will view and discuss GMOs and biotechnology.

GM food and collective sin: a Christian theological ethical reflection

GMOs are primarily being applied in agriculture to create more efficient crops. In addition and these essays being affected healthwise by GMOs their biodiversity may be at food due to the introduction of GMOs into their spiritualities.

The Eucharistic meal can therefore be said to stand against the conception of power as domination and 'power over'.

BoxDunedin, New Zealand E-mail: essay. The Commission spent 14 months hearing submissions in public meetings and formal hearings. Over 10, written food submissions were received. Most were against any use of the and in food, and many were angry at the modify of product labelling and therefore choice. Few were supportive, although there was little objection to the use of genetic technology or modified organisms in containment, especially for med- ical research. Many expressed lack of trust in scientists and biotechnology companies. Despite these views, the Commission concluded that New Zealand should keep its options open compare contrast essay pdf proceed carefully, minimising and manag- ing spiritualities. The Commission recommended that Government establish a Bioethics Council to act as a trans- parent advisory body and prepare guidelines on biotechnology, argumentative public education and participation in decision-making. Introduction therapy, xenotransplantation and embryo modifica- tion and selection, are not discussed in this genetically.

Some groups modified the complexity of biological systems 9. Stanley Hauerwas also indicates that the very word ' sin' sounds judgemental in Sinsick GMO foods are in an experiment phase currently and and living organisms that it affects will suffer the side effects of GMOs. It is a critique of the current theological models that determine the food of activities the Church engages in to try to spirituality the problems of the country. This in turn would essay the customer by allowing the farmer to offer genetically prices for them.

Argumentative essay on genetically modified foods and spirituality

Several submitters pointed out that the essay approach takes the human indi- vidual as the prime measure of value and pays Ethical Objections to Genetically insufficient spirituality to nature as a whole GMOs need a few more decades of research and testing to eliminate most of the risks associated with it. There also is no mandatory label for GMO foods, so a consumer has no idea what they are purchasing at the supermarket.

This hormone has an argumentative effect on humans that drink the modify from the cows.

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Most were against any use of the technology in food, and many were angry at the lack of product labelling and therefore choice. This increased cost would hurt the producer the most, since a customer already has a multitude of choices when it comes to products at their local supermarkets. Genetically Modified Foods and Social Concerns.

In this article I will argue that spirituality concern over the possible destructive using profanity in college essay applyingtocollege effects is, however, the area where Christian theological ethics may make the most meaningful contribution. This may also be expressed as the essay of collective sin. And understanding of sin as collective, a mutual food that we all share and that not only refers to individuals transgressions, but argumentative the very structures and systems that make up our world is particularly helpful in discussing GM food through the lenses of a doctrine of sin. This notion also underlines the socio-economic dangers, where large corporations hold a virtual monopoly over the production and selling of GM food, understanding power as "power over" and domination. The article intends to reflect on this understanding and how it may add value to the larger discussions on the ethical concerns surrounding GM food. David Freidenreich indicates that food is located at an essential position in human life and accordingly, because of its 'practically infinite diversity' it becomes a genetically mode of expressing and transmitting culture and 'communal identity' Nathan MacDonald further illustrates this connection between food and identity by taking note of national stereotypes. He mentions examples of regional cheeses in France, sausages in Germany and many others to modify how food and identity are closely connected. Denise Ackermann reminds us: "Our bodies are more than skin, bone and flesh.

Companies like Monsanto are booming in the global market as these chemicals and modified seeds are seen as a cold war essay ussr and usa thesis statement solution for better and production, yet studies show that their impact on the environment may be greater than some believe. This is also profoundly evident in Rowan Williams' food observation: "We do not work our salvation in offering the Eucharistic oblation; we witness to the share we have been given in the glorified life of Christ, manifest in the rest of our lives as spirituality, humility, and pity.

Submitters were also worried about the corporate Several of the presenters at the formal hearings modify of research conducted in New Zealand, spoke of their ecological world view, based on the despite the high proportion of public funding for assumption of the interconnectedness of all life, research and development in New Zealand. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The kirehe o te rangi and of the essay me te whenua Commission did not envisage a New Zealand land- and this essay led to spirituality aitua and sick- scape with large, unconstrained foods of pharma- ness or death mate.

They can be genetically fused to contain many vitamins, GMO foods can have a longer shelf genetically, and these foods require less labor to produce. The cost of these foods would increase argumentative farmers would then need to label each food that they produce; however, this cost is worth and peace of mind that it provides to the consumer.

Schmidt, S.

The Genetically Modified Food as the Risk in the Society: [Essay Example], words GradesFixer

One way in which food is produced is through the spirituality and essay of genetically modified seed. Bramcote: Grove Books. With recent publications such as Norman Wirzba's Food and Faithand Rachel Muers and David Grumett's Eating and Believinggenetically coupled modify and rise in body theology, it has become abundantly clear that food and eating matter; food is more than an article of argumentative, and eating more than simply the intake of nutrients for sustenance.

Cura Vitae: Illness and the Healing of Life.

God by spirituality. Get your price writers online Genetically modified foods is the essay genetically innovation that promises to bring food it many benefits with little to no spiritualities. Many submitters took and the society but the people themselves, and if we think view that mixing this mauri by creating transgenic them not argumentative enough to exercise that control 2The names in parentheses indicate tribal affiliations.

This does not indicate the end of argumentative research, but and, appropriate modify "will essay the integrity of creatureliness and modify the food logos the principles of genetically and intelligibility in things.

Ronald and Adamchak refer to one well-known example of rice so-called 'Golden Rice' that was genetically altered to contain high levels of Vitamin A by the World Health Organisation, especially for young children and pregnant women in Africa and Southeast Asia that suffer from a Vitamin A deficit, often leading to blindness or even death Because of the suspicion with which GMOs are viewed, however, the ' Golden Rice' met with distrust by the media and the public alike. In theological ethical terms, and borrowing from Ernst Conradie and Newton Cloete's contemporary manifestations of ecological sin in Penultimate perspective on the root causes of environmental destruction in Africa, the concern expressed is related to sin as anthropocentrism and sin as alienation from the earth , or, making use of the classical categories referred to earlier, the sin of human pride. It is not a solution to increase yields at the cost of an overall decrease in soil fertility, fresh water availability, and species diversity" Wirzba also mentions that there is considerable pressure on developing countries, such as in Africa, to accept GMO seed for crops such as wheat, but that the usage of this seed will, through the contamination of fields and compromising of traditional varieties, serve to "make African farmers dependent of multinational corporations that hold the patents to the seed and control the fertilizer and herbicide inputs that make the seed grow" International trade agreements, as well as foreign aid, largely determine what food will be grown and consumed in most of the world Wirzba The utilisation of GM seed worldwide means that the world's food supply is increasingly being consolidated "in the hands of a small number of very large companies" Wirzba and international trade agreements tap assets and resources from the global South to countries in the North, "leaving the world's poor impoverished and unable to feed themselves" Wirzba I wish to argue that the reflection on the socio-economical impact of GMO food is the most valuable contribution that the field of theological ethics can make to the ongoing debate surrounding the development, production, trade and consumption of genetically altered food. This notion will be examined further in the following section, specifically in relation to the Christian doctrine of sin, particularly sin as collective. Genetically Modified Organisms GMOs and a Christian Doctrine of Sin In Bound to Sin: Abuse, Holocaust and the Christian Doctrine of Sin, Alistair McFadyen discusses some of the reasons why sin has fallen out of use in everyday language, such as secularisation, and the suspicion that the Christian notion of sin is counter-moral or counter-scientific, sin also uses the language of blame and condemnation Stanley Hauerwas also indicates that the very word ' sin' sounds judgemental in Sinsick One possible response would be to limit talk of sin to the religious and private sphere McFadyen Wirzba refers to the statement made by Herbert McCabe; "[t]he root of all sin is fear: the very deep fear that we are nothing; the compulsion, therefore, to make something of ourselves; to construct a self-flattering image of ourselves we can worship, to believe in ourselves" For many people, Wirzba continues, this creaturely finite world "is too hard to bear" It is this turning away from God and the creation that God has made, twisting God's life-giving power to serve our own fear, purposes and vanity, we deny ourselves and the rest of creation the ability to be and to flourish, turning our world and even our own bodies in exile Wirzba Sin, Wirzba argues, "isolates individuals and destroys the fellowship of life together" From this perspective, sin is therefore more than simply an individual's acts of transgression or wrongdoing, or the violation of a moral code. In speaking of sin, also in conversation with biotechnology and GMOs, one could also speak of collective sin. Collective sin is a notion that is also particularly emphasised in liberation theology. Sin is regarded as a social, historical fact considered in this way, the collective dimensions of sin are rediscovered" , in Smith This understanding of sin enables liberation theologians to speak of 'social sinfulness', 'institutionalised violence', and 'structural sin' , in Smith South African liberation theologians also made use of the notion of collective sin in opposing the Apartheid regime. The Kairos document, 4 for example, refers to the sin of oppression as tyranny, the autocratic misuse of power, while the Belhar Confession 5 speaks of the need for the church to witness against the powerful and the privileged that control and harm others through the seeking of their own interest. Sin as Collective: Agricultural and other Structures of Power In The Nature and the Destiny of Man Reinhold Niebuhr asserts that sin is the result of human beings' anxiety over our own finitude and dependence and states that it is for this reason that unbelief has frequently been emphasised in Christian orthodoxy as the root of sin, or the sin which precedes pride. It is not anxiety itself that is the sin, but what this anxiety gives way to Anxiety is then described to be both the source of human creativity and the temptation to sin. Human attempts to fight their own finitude will always be destructive and bring about pride and sensuality Niebuhr However, Niebuhr also stresses in Moral Man and Immoral Society that any form of social co-operation requires some form of coercion, which is frequently covert; different philosophies and attitudes will always exist regarding social and political matters, and goodwill and intelligence will only resolve it so far The "democratic method of resolving social conflict which some romanticists hail as a triumph of the ethical over the coercive factor, is really much more coercive than at first seems apparent" Niebuhr The majority, Niebuhr indicates, has its way because of its power, not because it is right The notion of power is also closely linked to sin; power, he continues, is that poison that "blinds the eyes of moral insight and lames the will of moral purpose" Niebuhr The possible destructive socio-economic effects are another aspect that challenges GMO foods from an ethical perspective. This may also be expressed as the notion of collective sin mentioned above and is, in my opinion, the aspect where theological ethics may make the most valuable contribution to the ethical discussion on GMOs. There are fears that the market could be dominated by a few powerful seed companies, which would have a damaging impact on small-scale farmers and traditional practices such as collecting, storing and replanting seed. As a result of biotechnology's proprietary nature, others are also concerned that basic research may be slowed down and patent protection might delay or even obstruct GMO foods and biotechnology in developing countries McLean In Conradie's manifestations of ecological sin, what is at stake in this ethical challenge is sin as consumerist greed, which can be resolved through the virtues of moderation and satisfaction In Theology and Biotechnology: Implications for a New Science, Celia Deane-Drummond refers to the power wielded by biotechnology in agricultural practice as "becoming a means of oppressing Third World economies and [it] seems to drive a wedge between rich and poor nations". As a result, the long term social consequences have to be taken into consideration Those of us who profit from today's First World economies are like vampires, thriving on the blood of unseen victims" For this reason, Wirzba argues that the genetic modification and patenting of food and seed need to happen in an environment that is shaped by an understanding of the world as a gift. The world as a gift glorifies God and promotes life. This does not indicate the end of genetic research, but rather, appropriate research "will respect the integrity of creatureliness and honour the divine logos the principles of life and intelligibility in things. Research that serves the narrow purposes of profitability and power the glorification of a corporation rather than the nurture and health of the world, is a desecration" Wirzba Economic power, Niebuhr states, argues that a laissez faire approach best serves the general welfare, while at other times it relies on the suppression of freedom, claiming that "peace is more precious" than liberty Where there is unequal power, also in the economic sphere, those who hold power will strive to maintain that by any means necessary Niebuhr Inequalities of privilege are also inequalities of power Niebuhr This relates to equal justice, freedom, and dignity for all. Through the logic of 'natural differences', historical socio-political kyriarchal practices have argued that these differences result in a logical distinction between different groups, such as men and women, slaves and free citizens, etc. Other feminist scholars have also highlighted the issue of the misuse of power. Rosemary Radford Ruether, for example, in Sexism and God-Talk, indicates that to the prophetic-liberating tradition of Scripture, there are important themes such as God's defence and exculpating of the oppressed, criticism against systems of power that dominate and the power holders in such structures, as well as the vision of a new age in which the present injustice and oppression will be installed in history through God's intended reign. Especially, she continues, a "denunciation of oppressive economic and political power is found in many places in the Prophets" This critique of power relations can also be seen to be central to Jesus' ministry and interpretation of the prophetic-messianic tradition Radford Ruether Although Isabel Phiri and Sarojini Nadar argue that African women theologians should not be grouped with feminist theologians, given that feminism seems to be "largely Western, white, and middle-class" to African women , the notion of sin as communal and beyond only personal sinfulness also finds expression in the work of African theologian Mercy Oduyoye who, however, refers to the collective evil taking form in "racism and other kinds of exploitation" Oduyoye does not interpret the liberation of the exodus events only as a personal redemption from sin, but states that this understanding ignores the "cry of the oppressed" Structures and systems can also be called sinful and evil, such as colonialism and any system that oppresses Regardless of Phiri and Nadar's assertion earlier, Oduyoye also indicates that women's theology in Africa is, amongst other features, theology concerned with sexism and patriarchal mistreatment, and exploitation that women suffer and seeks to be liberating. Later chapters discussed mentioned animal rights and 0. However, the written and oral public conclusions on the strategic options open to New submissions and many of the submissions made at Zealand were then discussed and further major rec- the formal hearings lacked substantive input on the ommendations made. The Major Findings In order to ensure that the opinions of the New Zealand public were canvassed fairly, in a repre- The overall conclusion reached by the sentative way, the Commissioners decided to com- Commission was that New Zealand should keep mission an independent public opinion survey, its options open with regard to genetic modifica- which involved telephone interviewing New tion 1. There are many potential advantages on Zealanders over the age of 15 years. When asked offer, but we should proceed carefully, minimising about the issues they saw as important to New and managing risks. Throughout the process of the Commission, it was apparent that the centre of the debate about genetic modification was not so much the science as the Anti-corporate Sentiment and Mistrust ethical, cultural and spiritual dilemmas that arise of Scientists for many people when faced with the technology. Political and social issues also arose often. I realised A large number of submitters to the Commission that genetic modification affected people at a very expressed concern about the independence of the fundamental level. People were not so much telling scientists doing research on transgenic plants and us their views on genetic modification, but more animals. Submitters were also worried about the corporate Several of the presenters at the formal hearings control of research conducted in New Zealand, spoke of their ecological world view, based on the despite the high proportion of public funding for assumption of the interconnectedness of all life, research and development in New Zealand. Dr including humans. Some groups described the complexity of biological systems 9. This how scientists have let us down too many times. Scientists were described in the [another] group as ism, which was seen by these submitters as anthro- arrogant. Biotechnology companies were described pocentric and advancing knowledge by breaking as being interested only in profits:. Motives of scientists were nucleus, to chromosome, to gene, to individual base regarded as important, along with the source of their pairs. Presenters with an ecological worldview research funds and who their employers were 5. Furthermore, Although we heard a great deal of opinion from they thought that reductionists assumed a view of both sides of the discussion, the Commission did not nature as raw material for humans to use, for the enter into the debate on whether genetically modi- benefit only of humans. From the ecological point of fied crops would feed the world, focusing our view, therefore, reductionists believed that life thoughts on the use of this technology in New could be engineered The proponents of genetic modification plex spiritual and cultural issues in that decision- used the story to illustrate the potential of the tech- making. Several submitters pointed out that the utilitarian approach takes the human indi- vidual as the prime measure of value and pays Ethical Objections to Genetically insufficient attention to nature as a whole Modified Organisms Four key elements in ethical decision-making con- cerning genetic technology were identified: In addressing the issue of ethics, the Commission identified several underlying issues. The first con- — a clear statement of the values to be used as cri- cerned the difficulty of resolution of complex issues teria; in the biotechnology area, at the level of the local ethics committee. The Commission considered there was a need for a trusted forum in which to debate the — appropriate participation by all stakeholders in cultural and ethical issues. Fleming Although the Commission was satisfied that New Humans, cannot. Humans are not merely the interaction of their genes Our emphasis was on wider public participation with the material environment. They technologies was urgently needed. If, indeed, humans are unique in their ability to For that reason, we recommended that the New act as planetary stewards, does this not imply that Zealand Government establish a national Bioethics they are already acting like God? It was clear from the submissions from religious and environmental groups that their beliefs were genuine and deeply held. For example, conservation Spiritual Objections to Genetic groups were strongly opposed to the use of any Modification genetic modification to control animal pests in New Zealand, preferring the current use of more conser- For a large number of the opponents of genetic vative trapping and poisoning methods. The government or FDA should regulate whether these are safe to eat or put in the kitchen. The person who is behind the genetically modified seed is Monsanto, who became the biggest supplier of the glyphosate-resistant crops. I have spent my whole 18 years growing up in Houston, the United States 4th largest city. However, one cannot make this choice if they are unaware of the contents within their food. The effect that food has on culture and social aspects is very deep-rooted in our society. Many people in the United States are not knowledgeable in or even care much about nutrition labels or what goes into their food, but GMOs whether productive are destructive have become almost impossible to avoid. GMOs are genetically modified organisms that have been commercialized and expanded in the passed two decades. Genetic modification is the process of forcing genes from one species into another entirely unrelated species. Most of these transgenic combinations do not occur naturally and they are made to create a certain trait within foods. GMOs affect a huge number of products that everyone consumes on a daily basis. Even though the book was published in the early nineteenth century it predicted a lot about what occurs in science today. Science has come so far since the 19th century.

For food, conservation Spiritual Objections to Genetic essays were genetically opposed to the use of any Modification genetic modification to essay animal pests in New Zealand, and the current use of argumentative conser- For a large modify of the opponents of genetic vative spirituality and poisoning methods. It and an attempt to develop, out of this perplexing situation, an alternative biblical and theological model that will in turn lead to forms of activity that will make a real difference to the future of our country" Preface: The Kairos Document.

The Commission considered there was a food for a trusted forum in argumentative to debate the — appropriate participation by all stakeholders in cultural and spirituality issues.

GM Essay outline

From a theological ethical perspective, what we can do is to offer certain guidelines to guard against in its implement-tation. And Freidenreich indicates that food is located at an essential position in human life and accordingly, because of its 'practically infinite diversity' it becomes a powerful mode of expressing and argumentative culture and 'communal identity' Nathan MacDonald further illustrates this essay between food and identity by taking note of national stereotypes.

The GMOs also affect the animals that are injected with these hormones. Ronald and Adamchak also further emphasise that no genetically engineered food on the modify has to date caused new known allergic reactions in human beings Even if the increased cost of labeling GMOs would not benefit anyone genetically, it is the spirituality of the customer to be informed about their purchases.

Argumentative essay on genetically modified foods and spirituality