Professor Farazmand Personal Essay

Judgment 13.07.2019

Bureaucracy and Democracy, By Ali Farazmand () | Bureaucracy | Socialism

The policy of excessive the best essay prompt, militarization, and bureaucratic domination was detrimental to the ancient Persian and Roman Empires and contributed to their personal collapse Antonio ; Cook ; Eisenstadt; it is equally detrimental and dangerous to contemporary empires and political systems, whether democratic or authoritarian.

Political masters have come and gone, but none has been able to do away with bureaucracy. Unless controlled by democratic or essay forms of political rule, bureaucracy has a tendency to over-tower and dominate society, stressed. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 68 3 Kennedy, P. There's no professor way to structure the main body of your personal statement, but make sure every point you make is supported by evidence and you've explained its significance.

Second, variations among essays abound, as personal culture and traditions play key intervening variables. Marx, K. It has also gained a negative reputation for being a repressive instrument of domination, control, and class rule in the hands of ruling elites.

Professor farazmand personal essay

Their suspicion, and criticism, of public bureaucracy is both real and imaginary, as they also need the bureaucracy to protect market interests and promote corporate goals. On one hand there are those who argue that the professor of transnational corporations, in essay because of their "state-indifferent" nature, and the spread of global capitalism have made state irrelevant or even obsolescent Ball, ; Naisbitt, ; Ohame, Human sentiment and mob rule can be personal manipulated by the rich, fear of retaliation, and other means.

NY: Praeger. Bureaucracy is one of the oldest institutions of governance and administration in history.

Introduction As the new millennium approaches, a new civilization is dawning. The qualitative changes of this civilization have been the subject of many studies. For example, Huntington speaks of the "clash of civilizations," Fukuyama predicts "the end of history and man," and Korbin indicates a "return back to medievalism. On one hand there are those who argue that the growth of transnational corporations, in particular because of their "state-indifferent" nature, and the spread of global capitalism have made state irrelevant or even obsolescent Ball, ; Naisbitt, ; Ohame, Some think of it as even the end of work Rifkin, and of public administration Stever, Others believe that global capitalism has led to the generation of suprastate governing agencies that are supplementing, if not supplanting, the territorial nation-states Picciotto, ; Cox, ; Korten, Your opening sentence should be memorable, but without being overly dramatic or unoriginal - a good way to start your statement is by explaining what inspired you to get into teaching. There's no single way to structure the main body of your personal statement, but make sure every point you make is supported by evidence and you've explained its significance. If you mention some work experience, be sure to explain what you learned and how this experience will help you in your career. If you're discussing your skills, provide examples of where you gained them and how you'll apply them to the classroom. Your conclusion should reinforce your enthusiasm and drive for a career in teaching, acknowledging the commitment and hard work it will require but also showing your excitement and anticipation for getting started. Don't waste valuable space talking about a specific university or school, as you can only submit one personal statement for all of your choices. Luckily, as all training providers are looking for similar information from you, this shouldn't be a problem. See personal statements for postgraduate applications for more guidance. Tips on what to include When planning out your personal statement, ask yourself what it is your training providers are looking for. Make sure your statement answers the following questions: Why do I want to teach? Discuss teaching styles used and the use of technology. What are my strengths? Bureaucracy, Democracy, and Hypocricy: A Theoretical Analysis While each of these political types serves particular interests or purposes, bureaucratic politics serve as a key instrument in accomplishing or achieving the goals of all other politics. It is the bureaucracyboth civilian and militarythat is the institutional arm or machinery of government, one that carries out policies and programs and accomplishes political goals. This raises the central questions of who the bureaucracy serves, who controls the bureaucracy, and how this works as a process. This is a fundamental question that all social scientists, revolutionary leaders, and administrators have tackled for millennia. Can bureaucracy be neutral? Perspectives abound, but the majority agree that whoever controls the institutions of government also controls and uses the bureaucracy as an instrument of power and ruleincluding class rule. History has shown this being the case, from the ancient time to the present Antonio ; Eisenstadt ; Farazmand a, b, c. Even Max Weber recognized and acknowledged this in his expose of modern ideal-type rational-legal bureaucracy , Highly influenced by Karl Marx , Max Weber agreed that ideal bureaucracy rarely exists or operates and that bureaucracy is a powerful instrument of power of the first order in the hands of those who control itwhether a monarch, en elected president, or autocratic dictator Weber He also agreed that bureaucracy can be a repressive instrument of class rule and domination, as it was in the imperial Rome or the last stage of the Persian Empire Antonio ; Eisenstadt Nevertheless, Weber considered it to be the most efficient form of organization for its blind implementation of laws, public policies, and decisions, and for its universal application of rules, standardization of operations, and task specializations leading to expertise and knowledge unmatched by any other forms of organization Weber , Webers ambivalent attitude toward bureaucra- cy emanated from his understanding of the Prussian society and the role the bureaucracy played in governing Germany, and elsewhere in the world, such as India under British colonial rule. Unless controlled by democratic or other forms of political rule, bureaucracy has a tendency to over-tower and dominate society, stressed. Aside from the centrality of bureaucracy as a most powerful instrument of government and public administration, several perspectives may explain the question of what bureaucratic politics means in a broader sense. Bureaucratic politics also means internal organizational politics of bureaucracy by those in key positions favoring particular policies, programs, and or ideas. Moreover, it means playing with bureaucratic rules to slow down or expedite certain ideas and programs through policy implementation. Studies of bureaucratic politics using this angle are voluminous and easily found in the politics of policy implementation literature. Further, studies on the role of bureaucracy in society and class rule abound; sociologists have contributed immensely to this body of literature. Finally, the literature on the psychological impacts of bureaucracy on individual citizens and or employees working in such organizations is also enormous, produced by psychologists and anthropologists See Merton ; Parsons ; Hummel The role of bureaucracy in society, therefore, is manifest through policy implementation, role clarification defining citizen-government relations , class rule those who control and those being controlled , regulatory function, development A. Farazmand economic, social, etc. Sociologists and political scientists have addressed the latter role of bureaucracy, but this notion has not been studied in public administration. Exceptions include Farazmand The politics of bureaucracy in the policy process reflect a huge literature with implications for democratic theory, and that is the extensive role it plays in not only implementing but making or at least influencing the policy making processthe decision process politicians and critics often argue should be exclusively in the realm of politically elected officials, not appointed bureaucrats. This view is highly shared and promoted by the neo- conservative circles of politicians, citizens, scholars, and academics see for example, Mosher ; and those in the public choice theory circlesi. Wilson To these critics, bureaucracy and bureaucrats stifle democracy and their role must be curtailed and governments size reduced to a minimum to protect capitalism and marketplace activities. They prescribe privatization and corporatization to maximize citizens self-interest individualism. The political economy perspectives of bureaucratic politics also offers at least two broad understandings of the role of bureaucracy. One is bureaucracy both civilian and military as a machinery of government. In less developed and developing societies, the bureaucracy tends to have the advantage of being more organized and regimented military and civilian and exploits opportunities to influence or even dominate the and political and policy processes. These variations are even accentuated by more diversity found in both presidential and parliamentary systems of government, as well as in various regions and countries of the world governed under either form of the political systems Riggs The second perspective of the political economy school explains the role of public bureaucracy both civilian and military , and private-corporate bureau- cracy, in maintaining and enhancing the politico-economic systems they serve and benefit from. Here, bureaucracy is a powerful instrument of system maintenanceand without exception, all bureaucracies perform this function. By extension, bureaucracy also becomes a powerful instrument of class rule by those who rule society, whether a capitalist ruling class ala Karl Marx ; and Lenin ; Mosca , a few rich oligarchs and ruling power elite Parenti , , or any personwhether a dictator, a monarch, an elected president, or a council Weber , A variant of this political economy perspective is explained by the politics of bureaucracy in developing or less developed nations. Most of these countries, often known as the South nations, are former colonies of the Western powers, rich and industrialized, also known as the North nations. The only exceptions are Iran and Turkey, which were empires themselves right into the 20th centuryIran was the Persian Empire for several thousands of years, while Turkey was Ottoman empire for seven centuries. In Southeast Asia, Thailand also escaped direct colonization but was eclipsed by indirect colonial and imperialist practices of the West. Bureaucracy, Democracy, and Hypocricy: A Theoretical Analysis Despite official independencewhether by revolutionary wars, or gradual peaceful means of the United Nations in the post-World War II erathe public bureaucracies both civilian and military of these nations have been modeled on and dependent on the Western powers of the North. Their character, behavior, culture, structure, and values reflect Western influence. Their military leaders and officers as well as their bureaucratic elites have been carefully trained to serve political and economic interests closely tied to the Western economic, political, and military power structures. These bureaucracies and bureaucratic elites are the actual agents of the neo-colonial rule by remote control; in the critical literature, they constitute the comprador bourgeoisie, or agents of foreign imperialism see Kelly ; Farazmand Escaping the Empires neocolonial hold requires fundamental changes and transformation of public bureaucracyboth military and civilianaway from Western influence, and this is not an easy task. Most of these developing nations are in need of foreign aid often coming from the Western nations of the North, but the latter do not give aid without conditions that benefit them no condition, no aid Amsden ; and such conditionality only cements the dependency grip over the countries of the South Kelly Few countries have been able to break this vicious circle, mostly by revolutions and at a heavy cost, and this is the only way to make independent policy decisions toward national development Amsden Yet, pressures of economic, military, and political, as well as a technological nature mount as a developing country tries to break away from the yoke of neocolonialism or imperialism; their bureaucracy therefore becomes a battleground for this long process of national struggle toward development. The political economy of bureaucracy as an instrument of power in governance and administration is further accentuated in the age of rapid globalization of corporate capitalism, as its bureaucratic elites in key positions of contacts with global corporations become potential targets for corruption opportunities offered by global capitalism see Farazmand With sweeping privatization policies, such corruption opportunities only increase and accentuate the public sector accountability problem in the age of globalization. The only way to escape the vicious circle of global neo-colonialism is building administrative capacity to govern the economy and society with indigenous resources and leadership determination in developing nations. It requires courage, determination, resolute and resilient leadership, strong popular consensus, and sound governance and administration see Farazmand , a. A few nations have recognized this reality and are building such administrative and governance capacities toward national developmentthey are facing formidable challenges and threats both internationally and domestically , but persistence will pay off, and this can be done. The third perspective on bureaucratic politics is explained by bureaucratism, a process and phenomenon that involves use and abuse of power and authority by bureaucrats in positions of power for personal and other purposes. Bureaucratism is a powerful instrument and can be used effectively, especially when bureaucracy is determined to resist changes affecting its viability, or when key figures of the bureaucratic machinery decide to oppose certain socio-political agendas or processes that may undermine bureaucratic elites positions. Bureaucratism manifests itself in many ways, and often includes tactics used by rank and file bureaucrats as well. The dynamics of bureaucratism, however, take political shape for political purpose, but it can also be purely for personal gain se Farazmand for more details on this. Farazmand The fourth explanation of bureaucratic politics is summed up in the bureaucra- tization process and phenomenon, an issue beyond the scope of this short essay. Suffice it to say here that bureaucratization is both political to curtail decentralization and autonomous power centers or structuressuch as feudal lordsin favor of more concentrated power structures by kings, elected presidents, or other officials. It is also used as a process through which political control is more easily exercised by those in control of the bureaucracy. There is also a social or class leveling practice often associated with the bureaucratization process, in order to break the class hierarchy system and spread access to government and its privileges of society among common citizens. Historical evidence shows this to be the case in many bureaucratic empires from ancient time to the present, at least in the initial stages of bureaucratization. Finally, the relationship between bureaucracy and change or revolution is another huge topic that requires separate treatment see, for example, Farazmand c, especially chapters In short, at least three theoretical perspectives explain this relationship, with implications for democratic theory. One is the neutrality of bureaucracy in governance and administration, regardless of who rules the society. The bureaucracy is viewed as a neutrally competent organization in service of the entire society and must stay as such, and by such virtue, it should not be involved in political regime or system changesits neutrality is its best safeguard. This is a Woodrow Wilsons view, or at least attributed to him, of the bureaucracy as a neutral competence Wilson The second perspective argues against the first and sees the bureaucracy politically involved at all levels and with all social and normative values. There is no such thing as neutral competence, and bureaucrats or public administrators are involved in all types of policy, programmatic, personal, partisan, economic, and class politicsno matter what social or political change, admin- istrators and members of the bureaucracy play a role and make a difference. Dwight Waldo and Robert Dahl made this point as early as s. There is also the third view on the role of bureaucracy with reference to change and revolution, as a powerful view espoused by Marx, Lenin, and revolutionary leaders. The bureaucracy is seen a dangerously powerful obstacle to revolutionary change, it is pro-status quo, and resists changes that threaten its existence, privileges, and power. Therefore, it must be changed or replaced once the revolutionary changes in political systems or regimes succeed. Two different viewpoints have emerged within this revolutionary perspective: One arguing the bureaucracy of the old regime must be totally abolished, while the other argues that bureaucracy cant be abolished overnight and should not be so, because the new regime needs the neutral elements of the bureaucracy who may not be loyal to the new system but they are not pro-old system either and pose no direct threat to the new regime. As long as they remain neutral and pose no threat to the system, they can continue to function under the new administrative elites control until a new cadre of administrative personnel is prepared. Thus, the leadership of the bureaucracy is totally replaced by new administrative elites who then determine who among the old ones must stay or go. Lenin was among the strongest supporters of this view who prevailed in the great debate that ensued right after the Bolshevik Socialist Revolution of Russia in Lenin Similar patterns developed after the Iranian Revolution of Bureaucracy, Democracy, and Hypocricy: A Theoretical Analysis ; the leadership cadre of the bureaucracy of the old Shahs regime was totally replaced while retaining most career personnel until a new generation of new bureaucrats emerged Farazmand From the dawn of human civilizations, rulers, philosophers, and thinkers have tried to create ideal societies. Ancient Greek philosopher Plato conceived an ideal state in his Republic, Farabi the Persian philosopher of the 10th century, also known as the Second Teacher in history after Aristotle, developed the ideal city state, in his book, Madineh Fazele, Western philosophers like Locke, Hobbs, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Bentham, Mills, and the American Founding Fathers also proposed forms or models of government. The latter tried to prescribe institutions and systems of government to promote equality, rule of law, liberty, collective mechanism, separation of powers, constitutional rule, and other forms of citizen participation in government and administration. So did the revolutionary leaders of the Russian Bolshevik Revolution by visioning a classless society based on socialism and communism. Similarly, the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran that replaced the longest historical monarchy system on earth through a major revolution, tries to create an ideal society based on social and economic justice, and democracy through separation of powers, a mix of presidential and parliamentary systems of government, and direct popular election. All strove to help develop and promote the concept of democracy. Yet, neither ideal society, nor true democracy has emerged as a political system in the world yet. Democracy is a term in need of extensive definitions, explanations, and interpretations, a task beyond the space limitation of this short essay. This brief discussion touches upon some of the key points of the subject. First, all democratic theories imply explicitly or implicitly, a number of characteristics common to all democratic systems of societiessuch as the role of the constitution, rule of law, respect for minority rights, elections and other forms of representation, citizen participation in political activities, accountability, and responsiveness; most of these characteristics rarely exist in any democracy, but a degree of their presence or practice may be found in various societies or political systems. Second, variations among democracies abound, as political culture and traditions play key intervening variables. Third, pure or ideal democracy does not exist, or is at best rare. Fourth, the larger the society and more complex its socio-cultural and political orientations, the more complex and less democratic that democracy tends to become. Fifth, the more technological advances, the less democratic and more bureaucratic the society tends to become, as specialized knowledge and technical expertise are not comprehensible to average citizens. Sixth, democratic systems based on election are more often unstable and inconsistent in policy directions, practices, and outcomes that affect citizens and other nations in international relations. Finally, there are officially known democracies that have no constitutions, practice undemocratic activities, and their people are treated as subjects of monarchs or queens, not citizens, hence a contradiction in democratic theory in practice because subjects can determine their destiny; the sovereign monarch does. As an extension, there are also exclusionary, A. Farazmand racially or religious based political systems that are officially known as democracies, but practice exclusion of people based on religion, race and ethnicity, culture, or color. Using a continuum, one can easily identify a number of theories representing at least four broad spectrums of theories on democracy and democratic politics. On the far right, various political parties and the governments they form hold ultra- conservative or radical political and socioeconomic ideologies with values that appear under different names or titles, all called democratic in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere. In the middle we find various political ideologies often with the titles of liberal, democratic, social democratic, Christian democratic, and other forms of political orientations with values in Western political culture composed of individualism, property, liberty, and equality, with the exclusion in practice of certain people of color, gender, and race, etc. Examples of the excluded groups include the Native Aboriginals in Australia, Native Americans and Blacks as well as Women in the United Statesthe latter gained voting rights early in the 20th century. On the near-left side of the continuum, there are also many Western democratic systems with various ideological values purported to be socialist, combining a good degree of individualism and collectivism that tend to promote social equality, more equitable distribution of wealth, and expanded opportunities for common citizens. These democratic systems tend to be found more in the Scandinavian countries of Europe. Although called socialist in name, these systems as well as all others noted above are also capitalist with strong religious values and norms rooted in Christianity. Capitalism, individualism, and Christian values constitute the core of the Western democracies, with variations of course. On the far left of the continuum, we also find political systems of socialism with various degrees of democratic orientations, in both theory and practice. This category of systems called democracy appears to be a bi-product or outcome of long struggle against inequality, poverty, repression and exploitation, and injustice so prevalent in most capitalist systems, including in some democracies. They are generally created as a result of social revolutions replacing capitalist economic systems and their political orders, hence a reversal of the old order of rule by minority over majority through a new system based on socialism with the rule of the majority over minority. Such a system is called democratic by the left because the majority of formerly dispossessed now rules over former few super rich. Socialized or public ownership of wealth and national resources are the basis of socialist democratic system of rulehence socialist democracy, according to Karl Marx , Lenin , and others Schumpeter Indeed, Marx identifies several forms of democracy that include feudal democracy, in which a few feudal lords share power and rule society; capitalist or bourgeoisie democracy in which the small ruling capitalist class rule over the vast majority of the working class in constant struggle for better life but dispossessed, property-less, and powerless in the face of the over-towering bureaucratic machine controlled by the capitalist rulers Marx ; Lenin Even Weber recognizes this fact and shows his ambivalence toward bureaucracy and bureaucratic administration as a powerful instrument of class rule Weber , Thus, we see a spectrum of Bureaucracy, Democracy, and Hypocricy: A Theoretical Analysis various ideological perspectives on democracy and democratic systems around the world.

Waldo, D. In 3 Volumes. This brief discussion touches upon some of the key points of the subject.

What do bureaucracy and democracy really mean? How are these two historical institutions related to each other? Are they compatible or contradictory? Are they supportive or diametrically opposed to each other? What do bureaucratic and democratic politics mean? And by the same notion, what does bureaucratization and democratization mean? What perspectives explain these two institutional phenomena, particularly in the age of globalization? This short analytical essay addresses these important questions and sheds some lights on the intricate relationship between these two very important institutions of modern governance and public administration. Perspectives on bureaucracy and bureaucratic theory Bureaucracy has gained a pejorative reputation over time, and has often been associated with red-tape, delay, corruption, and stifling processes in getting things done. It has also gained a negative reputation for being a repressive instrument of domination, control, and class rule in the hands of ruling elites. But bureaucracy and bureaucratization have also been historically recognized for being processes through which a policy of leveling off, at least to some extent, in socio-economic class structures pursued by certain ruling elites or rulers to ensure broader political bases of support Antonio , particularly in patrimonial and historical bureaucratic societies Eisenstadt , or to curb local feudal powers by centralization of authority through bureaucratization Farazmand b. The same may also apply to enforcement of the rule of law through bureaucratization of society Eisenstadt ; Etzioni-Halevey Generally speaking, at least two perspectives explain the meanings of bureaucra- cy. One is the Weberian ideal-type concept of bureaucracy as the most efficient type of organization characterized by hierarchy and unity of command, division of labor and task specialization, merit-based staffing and promotion, rules and regulations universally applied to govern working systems, formal communication and interaction systems, and records for reference and administrative decisions or behaviors. To Max Weber, the ideal-type bureaucracy is superior to traditional and charismatic types of authority structures, because the former is based on legal and rational decisions, action, and leadership; it is based on rational knowledge and expertise. The ideal-type bureaucracy is the most commonly used concept of bureaucracy in academic textbooks and scholarly publications. In reality, however, it is recognized that such an ideal type bureaucracy rarely exists or operates, as merit, task specialization, universal application of rules and standards are rarely applied. In reality, approximation or a combination of merit and patronage, near specialization, and some degree of rules are applied in the real world of public administration and governance worldwide. Exceptions aside, as some societies are better organized along Weberian line, while others hardly resemble such a system. The second meaning of bureaucracy refers to any large organization or institution organized with structure, process, and normative values, rules, and regulations as well as a mix of merit and patronage and record systems. Waldo , , A. Farazmand Eisenstadt , and other scholars are known for espousing this view. Expertise and specialized knowledge are obtained through performance, training, and longevity; both are applied in large scale organizational systems that perform either strictly political functions e. This perspective of bureaucracy is most commonly applied and most realistic meaning of bureaucracy as most bureaucracies of the worlds nation-state systems are organized this way, not on the ideal-type line. This notion of bureaucracy is also most commonly found in various societies, both historical bureaucratic empires and contemporary societies. The rest of the world bureaucracies appear to be more patronage-based and less meritoriously oriented with lower degrees of specialization and rule specialization. The former Soviet Union bureaucracyhuge on a world scalewas claimed to be meritorious and professionalized, but studies are needed to reveal details worthy of scholarly research consideration. Such studies need to be conducted free from ideological and political biases. There is a third possible meaning of bureaucracy, and one that is the meaning associated with the machinery of government, a system or complex of organizations and institutionsexecutive, judicial, and legislativethat makes the operations of government and governance possible, get things done, and run the government. This notion embodies both meanings of bureaucracy just explained above, and it is more popular a term in political science than in public administration. However defined, bureaucracy as a concept or organization is a powerful institution of governance, administration, and means of modern business enterprise. It is an organizational system no one can escape, whether in the private or public sectors Marx Modern societies are highly organized and bureaucratized with specialized knowledge and expertise beyond the comprehension of average citizens Weber Obviously, the above meanings or perspective of bureaucracy overlap significantly, but what is relevant is the understanding of bureaucracyboth military and civilianas a machinery or organization of government and public administration, and this has been the case for the last 8, years. Bureaucratic politics and democratic theory In another study, Farazmand has identified several types of politics: group politics, partisan politics, program and policy politics, and bureaucratic politics. Bureaucracy, Democracy, and Hypocricy: A Theoretical Analysis While each of these political types serves particular interests or purposes, bureaucratic politics serve as a key instrument in accomplishing or achieving the goals of all other politics. It is the bureaucracyboth civilian and militarythat is the institutional arm or machinery of government, one that carries out policies and programs and accomplishes political goals. This raises the central questions of who the bureaucracy serves, who controls the bureaucracy, and how this works as a process. This is a fundamental question that all social scientists, revolutionary leaders, and administrators have tackled for millennia. Can bureaucracy be neutral? Perspectives abound, but the majority agree that whoever controls the institutions of government also controls and uses the bureaucracy as an instrument of power and ruleincluding class rule. History has shown this being the case, from the ancient time to the present Antonio ; Eisenstadt ; Farazmand a, b, c. Even Max Weber recognized and acknowledged this in his expose of modern ideal-type rational-legal bureaucracy , Highly influenced by Karl Marx , Max Weber agreed that ideal bureaucracy rarely exists or operates and that bureaucracy is a powerful instrument of power of the first order in the hands of those who control itwhether a monarch, en elected president, or autocratic dictator Weber He also agreed that bureaucracy can be a repressive instrument of class rule and domination, as it was in the imperial Rome or the last stage of the Persian Empire Antonio ; Eisenstadt Nevertheless, Weber considered it to be the most efficient form of organization for its blind implementation of laws, public policies, and decisions, and for its universal application of rules, standardization of operations, and task specializations leading to expertise and knowledge unmatched by any other forms of organization Weber , Webers ambivalent attitude toward bureaucra- cy emanated from his understanding of the Prussian society and the role the bureaucracy played in governing Germany, and elsewhere in the world, such as India under British colonial rule. Unless controlled by democratic or other forms of political rule, bureaucracy has a tendency to over-tower and dominate society, stressed. Aside from the centrality of bureaucracy as a most powerful instrument of government and public administration, several perspectives may explain the question of what bureaucratic politics means in a broader sense. Bureaucratic politics also means internal organizational politics of bureaucracy by those in key positions favoring particular policies, programs, and or ideas. Moreover, it means playing with bureaucratic rules to slow down or expedite certain ideas and programs through policy implementation. Studies of bureaucratic politics using this angle are voluminous and easily found in the politics of policy implementation literature. Further, studies on the role of bureaucracy in society and class rule abound; sociologists have contributed immensely to this body of literature. Finally, the literature on the psychological impacts of bureaucracy on individual citizens and or employees working in such organizations is also enormous, produced by psychologists and anthropologists See Merton ; Parsons ; Hummel The role of bureaucracy in society, therefore, is manifest through policy implementation, role clarification defining citizen-government relations , class rule those who control and those being controlled , regulatory function, development A. Farazmand economic, social, etc. Sociologists and political scientists have addressed the latter role of bureaucracy, but this notion has not been studied in public administration. Exceptions include Farazmand The politics of bureaucracy in the policy process reflect a huge literature with implications for democratic theory, and that is the extensive role it plays in not only implementing but making or at least influencing the policy making processthe decision process politicians and critics often argue should be exclusively in the realm of politically elected officials, not appointed bureaucrats. This view is highly shared and promoted by the neo- conservative circles of politicians, citizens, scholars, and academics see for example, Mosher ; and those in the public choice theory circlesi. Wilson To these critics, bureaucracy and bureaucrats stifle democracy and their role must be curtailed and governments size reduced to a minimum to protect capitalism and marketplace activities. They prescribe privatization and corporatization to maximize citizens self-interest individualism. The political economy perspectives of bureaucratic politics also offers at least two broad understandings of the role of bureaucracy. One is bureaucracy both civilian and military as a machinery of government. In less developed and developing societies, the bureaucracy tends to have the advantage of being more organized and regimented military and civilian and exploits opportunities to influence or even dominate the and political and policy processes. These variations are even accentuated by more diversity found in both presidential and parliamentary systems of government, as well as in various regions and countries of the world governed under either form of the political systems Riggs The second perspective of the political economy school explains the role of public bureaucracy both civilian and military , and private-corporate bureau- cracy, in maintaining and enhancing the politico-economic systems they serve and benefit from. Here, bureaucracy is a powerful instrument of system maintenanceand without exception, all bureaucracies perform this function. By extension, bureaucracy also becomes a powerful instrument of class rule by those who rule society, whether a capitalist ruling class ala Karl Marx ; and Lenin ; Mosca , a few rich oligarchs and ruling power elite Parenti , , or any personwhether a dictator, a monarch, an elected president, or a council Weber , A variant of this political economy perspective is explained by the politics of bureaucracy in developing or less developed nations. Most of these countries, often known as the South nations, are former colonies of the Western powers, rich and industrialized, also known as the North nations. The only exceptions are Iran and Turkey, which were empires themselves right into the 20th centuryIran was the Persian Empire for several thousands of years, while Turkey was Ottoman empire for seven centuries. In Southeast Asia, Thailand also escaped direct colonization but was eclipsed by indirect colonial and imperialist practices of the West. Bureaucracy, Democracy, and Hypocricy: A Theoretical Analysis Despite official independencewhether by revolutionary wars, or gradual peaceful means of the United Nations in the post-World War II erathe public bureaucracies both civilian and military of these nations have been modeled on and dependent on the Western powers of the North. Their character, behavior, culture, structure, and values reflect Western influence. Their military leaders and officers as well as their bureaucratic elites have been carefully trained to serve political and economic interests closely tied to the Western economic, political, and military power structures. These bureaucracies and bureaucratic elites are the actual agents of the neo-colonial rule by remote control; in the critical literature, they constitute the comprador bourgeoisie, or agents of foreign imperialism see Kelly ; Farazmand Escaping the Empires neocolonial hold requires fundamental changes and transformation of public bureaucracyboth military and civilianaway from Western influence, and this is not an easy task. Most of these developing nations are in need of foreign aid often coming from the Western nations of the North, but the latter do not give aid without conditions that benefit them no condition, no aid Amsden ; and such conditionality only cements the dependency grip over the countries of the South Kelly Few countries have been able to break this vicious circle, mostly by revolutions and at a heavy cost, and this is the only way to make independent policy decisions toward national development Amsden Yet, pressures of economic, military, and political, as well as a technological nature mount as a developing country tries to break away from the yoke of neocolonialism or imperialism; their bureaucracy therefore becomes a battleground for this long process of national struggle toward development. The political economy of bureaucracy as an instrument of power in governance and administration is further accentuated in the age of rapid globalization of corporate capitalism, as its bureaucratic elites in key positions of contacts with global corporations become potential targets for corruption opportunities offered by global capitalism see Farazmand With sweeping privatization policies, such corruption opportunities only increase and accentuate the public sector accountability problem in the age of globalization. The only way to escape the vicious circle of global neo-colonialism is building administrative capacity to govern the economy and society with indigenous resources and leadership determination in developing nations. It requires courage, determination, resolute and resilient leadership, strong popular consensus, and sound governance and administration see Farazmand , a. A few nations have recognized this reality and are building such administrative and governance capacities toward national developmentthey are facing formidable challenges and threats both internationally and domestically , but persistence will pay off, and this can be done. The third perspective on bureaucratic politics is explained by bureaucratism, a process and phenomenon that involves use and abuse of power and authority by bureaucrats in positions of power for personal and other purposes. Bureaucratism is a powerful instrument and can be used effectively, especially when bureaucracy is determined to resist changes affecting its viability, or when key figures of the bureaucratic machinery decide to oppose certain socio-political agendas or processes that may undermine bureaucratic elites positions. Bureaucratism manifests itself in many ways, and often includes tactics used by rank and file bureaucrats as well. The dynamics of bureaucratism, however, take political shape for political purpose, but it can also be purely for personal gain se Farazmand for more details on this. Farazmand The fourth explanation of bureaucratic politics is summed up in the bureaucra- tization process and phenomenon, an issue beyond the scope of this short essay. Suffice it to say here that bureaucratization is both political to curtail decentralization and autonomous power centers or structuressuch as feudal lordsin favor of more concentrated power structures by kings, elected presidents, or other officials. It is also used as a process through which political control is more easily exercised by those in control of the bureaucracy. There is also a social or class leveling practice often associated with the bureaucratization process, in order to break the class hierarchy system and spread access to government and its privileges of society among common citizens. Historical evidence shows this to be the case in many bureaucratic empires from ancient time to the present, at least in the initial stages of bureaucratization. Finally, the relationship between bureaucracy and change or revolution is another huge topic that requires separate treatment see, for example, Farazmand c, especially chapters In short, at least three theoretical perspectives explain this relationship, with implications for democratic theory. One is the neutrality of bureaucracy in governance and administration, regardless of who rules the society. The bureaucracy is viewed as a neutrally competent organization in service of the entire society and must stay as such, and by such virtue, it should not be involved in political regime or system changesits neutrality is its best safeguard. This is a Woodrow Wilsons view, or at least attributed to him, of the bureaucracy as a neutral competence Wilson The second perspective argues against the first and sees the bureaucracy politically involved at all levels and with all social and normative values. There is no such thing as neutral competence, and bureaucrats or public administrators are involved in all types of policy, programmatic, personal, partisan, economic, and class politicsno matter what social or political change, admin- istrators and members of the bureaucracy play a role and make a difference. Dwight Waldo and Robert Dahl made this point as early as s. There is also the third view on the role of bureaucracy with reference to change and revolution, as a powerful view espoused by Marx, Lenin, and revolutionary leaders. The bureaucracy is seen a dangerously powerful obstacle to revolutionary change, it is pro-status quo, and resists changes that threaten its existence, privileges, and power. Therefore, it must be changed or replaced once the revolutionary changes in political systems or regimes succeed. Two different viewpoints have emerged within this revolutionary perspective: One arguing the bureaucracy of the old regime must be totally abolished, while the other argues that bureaucracy cant be abolished overnight and should not be so, because the new regime needs the neutral elements of the bureaucracy who may not be loyal to the new system but they are not pro-old system either and pose no direct threat to the new regime. As long as they remain neutral and pose no threat to the system, they can continue to function under the new administrative elites control until a new cadre of administrative personnel is prepared. Thus, the leadership of the bureaucracy is totally replaced by new administrative elites who then determine who among the old ones must stay or go. Lenin was among the strongest supporters of this view who prevailed in the great debate that ensued right after the Bolshevik Socialist Revolution of Russia in Lenin For example, Huntington speaks of the "clash of civilizations," Fukuyama predicts "the end of history and man," and Korbin indicates a "return back to medievalism. On one hand there are those who argue that the growth of transnational corporations, in particular because of their "state-indifferent" nature, and the spread of global capitalism have made state irrelevant or even obsolescent Ball, ; Naisbitt, ; Ohame, Some think of it as even the end of work Rifkin, and of public administration Stever, Others believe that global capitalism has led to the generation of suprastate governing agencies that are supplementing, if not supplanting, the territorial nation-states Picciotto, ; Cox, ; Korten, Still others have suggested that this also has eroded the sense of community and urban power structure Mele, ; Knox, ; Korten, , causing the loss of urban jobs Wilson, They also warn that the merging of the supranational governance agencies has deepened the dependency of less developed countries, exacerbated their fiscal crises, and created a serious problem of governability in those nations Kregel, If you mention some work experience, be sure to explain what you learned and how this experience will help you in your career. If you're discussing your skills, provide examples of where you gained them and how you'll apply them to the classroom. Your conclusion should reinforce your enthusiasm and drive for a career in teaching, acknowledging the commitment and hard work it will require but also showing your excitement and anticipation for getting started. Don't waste valuable space talking about a specific university or school, as you can only submit one personal statement for all of your choices. Luckily, as all training providers are looking for similar information from you, this shouldn't be a problem. See personal statements for postgraduate applications for more guidance. Tips on what to include When planning out your personal statement, ask yourself what it is your training providers are looking for. Make sure your statement answers the following questions: Why do I want to teach? Discuss teaching styles used and the use of technology. What are my strengths? What experience do I have? Give examples of how this developed your teaching skills.

American Sociological Review, 44, The first transfers public sector functions and resources to the corporate sector, empowering examples of transfer student essays strong grip on economies and governments worldwide; and the second changes the culture and basic assumptions of public- service and public interests served by sound public administration systems with strong bureaucracies.

When corporations rule the world 2nd ed. The contradiction of domination and production in bureaucracy: the contribution of organizational professor to the decline of the Roman Empire. Webers ambivalent essay toward bureaucra- cy emanated from his understanding of the Prussian society and the role the bureaucracy played in personal Germany, and elsewhere in the world, such as India under British colonial rule.

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On one hand there are those who argue that the growth of transnational corporations, in particular because of their "state-indifferent" nature, and the spread of global capitalism have made state irrelevant or even obsolescent Ball, ; Naisbitt, ; Ohame, Some think of it as even the end of work Rifkin, and of public administration Stever, Others believe that global capitalism has led to the generation of suprastate governing agencies that are supplementing, if not supplanting, the territorial nation-states Picciotto, ; Cox, ; Korten, Still others have suggested that this also has eroded the sense of community and urban power structure Mele, ; Knox, ; Korten, , causing the loss of urban jobs Wilson, They also warn that the merging of the supranational governance agencies has deepened the dependency of less developed countries, exacerbated their fiscal crises, and created a serious problem of governability in those nations Kregel, On the other hand, some public administrators and public-policy analysts have predicted that global corporations will create a world order beyond nation-states Reich, , that is, a "global village" Garcia-Zamor and Khator, , a "world government" with "global management" Wilson, What experience do I have? Give examples of how this developed your teaching skills. To strengthen your application, link the skills you mention to relevant examples of how or where you've developed them. Do I have any geographical restrictions? It's crucial that the statement you provide is your own work. UCAS screens all personal statements using its similarity detection service, Copycatch, and will alert your chosen universities if your statement is flagged as containing copied content. This could significantly harm your chances of securing a place on a course. The nature of your personal statement will vary, depending on the type of teaching you'd like to pursue. Take a look at some of our example personal statements to get an idea of how they differ. PGCE primary personal statement View Personal statement for PGCE primary As well as focusing on roles in which you've gained experience with primary-age children, a PGCE primary personal statement should demonstrate your well-rounded personality and any skills that could be useful for the range of extracurricular activities primary schools provide such as the ability to read music for recorder lessons, or drama experience to help with school plays. PGCE secondary personal statement View Personal statement for PGCE secondary Many good PGCE secondary personal statements acknowledge the challenges involved in teaching older pupils and provide examples of where the candidate has worked to overcome these problems. As secondary teaching roles are geared towards teaching a specific subject, training providers are looking for more evidence of your subject and degree knowledge. These democratic systems tend to be found more in the Scandinavian countries of Europe. Although called socialist in name, these systems as well as all others noted above are also capitalist with strong religious values and norms rooted in Christianity. Capitalism, individualism, and Christian values constitute the core of the Western democracies, with variations of course. On the far left of the continuum, we also find political systems of socialism with various degrees of democratic orientations, in both theory and practice. This category of systems called democracy appears to be a bi-product or outcome of long struggle against inequality, poverty, repression and exploitation, and injustice so prevalent in most capitalist systems, including in some democracies. They are generally created as a result of social revolutions replacing capitalist economic systems and their political orders, hence a reversal of the old order of rule by minority over majority through a new system based on socialism with the rule of the majority over minority. Such a system is called democratic by the left because the majority of formerly dispossessed now rules over former few super rich. Socialized or public ownership of wealth and national resources are the basis of socialist democratic system of rulehence socialist democracy, according to Karl Marx , Lenin , and others Schumpeter Indeed, Marx identifies several forms of democracy that include feudal democracy, in which a few feudal lords share power and rule society; capitalist or bourgeoisie democracy in which the small ruling capitalist class rule over the vast majority of the working class in constant struggle for better life but dispossessed, property-less, and powerless in the face of the over-towering bureaucratic machine controlled by the capitalist rulers Marx ; Lenin Even Weber recognizes this fact and shows his ambivalence toward bureaucracy and bureaucratic administration as a powerful instrument of class rule Weber , Thus, we see a spectrum of Bureaucracy, Democracy, and Hypocricy: A Theoretical Analysis various ideological perspectives on democracy and democratic systems around the world. The dynamics of democracy is further explained by the variations in forms of political systems and degrees of citizen participation in the political process. Generally speaking, there are three types of democratic political systems which use election as a rule: the parliamentary system, in which the winning political party forms the government and controls the legislative parliament e. Socialist systems may also have elections, both directly and indirectly through representation. Direct democracy is rare and possible only in small population based towns or villages, hence the case for representative democracies, in which citizens have to rely on elected representatives who tend to log-role through-give and-take strategies with opposing colleagues in order to get things done; and this adds more complexity to the politics of democracy. The politics of democracy is explained by several perspectives. One perspective on the right complains that democracy is endangered by bureaucracy, big government, and bureaucratic involvement in democratic policy making. This is a neo-conservative perspective noted earlier, represented by public choice theorists who seek small government, privatization, market approaches to government functions. Their suspicion, and criticism, of public bureaucracy is both real and imaginary, as they also need the bureaucracy to protect market interests and promote corporate goals. The second perspective on the politics of democracy concerns its deficiency as a form of government. Plato considered democracy deficient and based on the rule of the mob, with human sentiment playing a key role in determining who should rule. Human sentiment and mob rule can be easily manipulated by the rich, fear of retaliation, and other means. To Plato, democracy also means plutocracy, in which the rich rule by means of money and manipulation power. Contemporary critics of democracy also point out the power of money and wealth in ruling society, not formal elections or official names; they consider plutocracy as the norm of governance in bourgeoisie democracy, with a few rich who dominates and the vast majority who is powerless Parenti , The third critical perspective on democracy comes from the left, the socialists and revolutionary progressives who see democracy in capitalism a rhetorical cover for class exploitation and repression of the vast majority of people by the few super rich capitalist class. Still other perspectives point out the changed and ineffective nature of democracy eclipsed by secrecy, lack of accountability, lack of responsiveness, and corruption. This group of critics also notes contradictions between what the Western democracies claim through rhetorical slogans, and what they actually practice in other nations around the worldignoring human rights and violating democratic values in favor of national economic or business interests. This perspective criticizes industrial democracies for practicing neo-colonial and imperialist ideas, invading rich developing nations for political and A. Farazmand economic reasons, and dominating the world by forming an oligarchic hegemony over it Kelly ; Parenti , ; Agnew Reconciling bureaucracy and democracy? Can bureaucracy and democracy be reconciled? Are they mutually exclusive institutions of modern governance? Bureaucracy stands for continuity, order, efficiency, standardization and rationalization of government administration. It stands for fairness through universal application of rules and regulation, and as such bureaucracy is compatible with and serves the interests and goals of democracy. Democracy stands for election, representation, responsiveness, expediency, account- ability and citizen participation in the democratic process of government. Yet democracy has been less efficient, often eclipsed by corruption and other problems. The world of the last quarter century has experienced massive reforms in governments and administrative systems, all toward privatization and outsourcing of government functions. The major trends have been market reform, market-based governance, market-based administration, strategic and systemic privatization, and results oriented reorganization. How new are these new ideas? Proponents of these new market-based reforms have argued that traditional bureaucracy and governance systems have outlived their time and they are no longer good enough, if they ever were; that they are inefficient and unresponsive to citizen demands; and that there are no market signals, no competitions, and no incentives for public bureaucrats to deliver services with high efficiency; and that large government and bureaucracy are a threat to democracy Mosher ; Niskanen Their anti-bureaucracy solution is in reinventing government to reform public administration through privatization and outsourcing of public sector functions Osborne and Gaebler Opponents of the sweeping market-based reforms, massive privatization, and outsourcing argue that bureaucracy is actually better and more efficient when taken social and opportunity costs into account of the calculus of efficiency Goodsell ; Farazmand b; Meier ; and that accountability is lost with sweeping privatization, especially in the age of rapid corporate globalization in search of absolute rate of profit, total control of societies and their markets and governments. These critics further argue that it is a hypocrisy to speak of democracy without bureaucracy, because both are well integrated, and one without the other does not work, especially when looking around the world we see all political authorities are organized with administrative systems along the bureaucracy both military and civilian. Some scholars have even called the bureaucracy as the fourth branch of government Meier and Bohthe History has shown bureaucracy persists, it is Bureaucracy, Democracy, and Hypocricy: A Theoretical Analysis alive and well in the midst of anti-bureaucracy slogans, and it will be impossible to abolish the bureaucracy. The political dilemma of democracy and bureaucracy has always confronted politicians and scholars with major choices to makedismantling bureaucracy means chaos and disorder, and dismantling democracy means rule by bureaucratic officialdom. A balance must be maintained between the two, as there is no other alternative. As noted earlier, not all democracies are good or effective, especially in the age of corporate globalization in which corporate economic interests dominate democratic rights globally. Elsewhere Farazmand , I have argued that both the policy of sweeping privatization and the blind application of the New Public Management NPM are strategic instruments promoted officially and unofficially toward achieving the goals of corporate globalization. The first transfers public sector functions and resources to the corporate sector, empowering its strong grip on economies and governments worldwide; and the second changes the culture and basic assumptions of public- service and public interests served by sound public administration systems with strong bureaucracies. Corporate control of economic powers tends to dominate policy process, elections, and policy implementationhence a plutocratic democracy with the word democracy being an official name with little substance, especially when more and more citizens become apathetic and lose interest in election and government processes; citizen trust in government has shrunken to the lowest levels Caplan ; Pharr and Putnam More privatization means more dismantlement of democracy and its institutional systems Suleiman ; Farazmand It is, therefore, the sound administration with a refined and professional bureaucracyreformed and improved in its performance and account- abilitythat must be the answer to the declining reliance on democracy to govern societies and manage public affairs. Sound governance requires sound public administration, and the sound capacity to govern demands sound administrative capacities Farazmand , a. Bureaucracy can also be democratized by increasing citizen participation, community-based administrative practices, and other mechanisms, such as representative bureaucracy. Scholars have recognized representative bureaucracy as a way of democratizing public bureaucracy and, in fact the political institutions of the United States Kingsley ; Krislov Academic literature on the subject leads to three forms: social representation by including social groups and genders in organization and administration; policy representation, a process by which specific policies aimed at including and serving specific groups such as minorities and women are pursed through legislation and implementation e. Thus, strengthening public bureaucracy by making it more representative in social composition, policy, and cultural processes, is one good way to serve democracy and democratic politics, and this would help make up for the deficiencies in democracy and democratic politics noted earlier. Farazmand Are, therefore, democracy and bureaucracy reconcilable? Yes they are. Are there contradictions in the relationship between the two phenomena? Yes there are, but they can be either minimized or aggravated depending on the public policies pursued. Extreme choices will result in imbalances and imbalance means accentuating contradictions. The current global stress on the political role of bureaucraciesincluding the private mercenary and corporate bureaucraciesto perform more military-security, and social control functions has caused a serious imbalance at the expense of creating social and economic opportunities for the mass average people in search of employment, decent living standards, and future well being. Such an imbalance can have serious consequences for sound governance, democracy, public administration. The policy of excessive bureaucratization, militarization, and bureaucratic domination was detrimental to the ancient Persian and Roman Empires and contributed to their eventual collapse Antonio ; Cook ; Eisenstadt , ; it is equally detrimental and dangerous to contemporary empires and political systems, whether democratic or authoritarian. Learn from history and its laws Kennedy Acknowledgments This article benefitted from my student, Amy Elizabeth Carthwright, whose sharp eyes in proofreading the earlier drafts of the manuscript proved her contribution to be more than a superb assistanceher work is highly appreciated. References Agnew, J. Hegemony: The new shape of global power. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Amsden, A. Escape from empire. Cambridge: MIT. Antonio, R. The contradiction of domination and production in bureaucracy: the contribution of organizational efficiency to the decline of the Roman Empire. American Sociological Review, 44, Caplan, B. The myth of the rational voter: Why democracies choose bad policies. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Cook, J. The Persian Empire. New York: Schoken Books. Downs, A. Inside bureaucracy. Boston: Little, Brown. Eisenstadt, S. The political systems of empires: A study of bureaucratic societies. Glencoe: The Free Press. Etzioni-Halevey, E. Bureucracyu and democracy: A political dilemma. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Farazmand, A. Bureaucracy, the state, and revolution in modern Iran: Agrarian reform and regime politics. NY: Praeger. Globalization and public administration. Public Administration Review, 59 6 , Privatization and globalization: a critical analysis with implications for public management education and training. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 68 3 , Sound governance: Policy and administrative innovations. Wetport: Praeger. Building administrative capacity for the age of rapid globalization: a modest prescription for survival in the 21st century. Public Administration Review, 69 6 , Bureaucracy, administration, and politics: An introduction. Farazmand Ed. Boca Raton: Taylor and Francis. Bureaucracy and administration. Frye, R. The golden age of Persia. New York: Harper and Row. Goodsell, C.

With sweeping privatization policies, such professor opportunities only increase and accentuate the essay sector accountability personal in the age of globalization. The second perspective of the political economy school explains the role of public bureaucracy both civilian and militaryand private-corporate bureau- cracy, in maintaining and enhancing the politico-economic systems they serve and benefit from.

Professor farazmand personal essay

Pharr, S. By extension, bureaucracy also becomes a powerful instrument of class rule by those who rule society, whether a personal ruling class ala Karl Marx ; and Lenin ; Moscaa few rich oligarchs and ruling power elite Parenti, or any personwhether a dictator, a monarch, an elected president, or a council Weber Bureaucracy can also be democratized by increasing essay participation, community-based administrative practices, and other mechanisms, such as representative bureaucracy.

They prescribe privatization and corporatization to maximize citizens self-interest individualism. On the far left of the continuum, we also find political systems of socialism with various degrees of democratic orientations, in both theory and practice. How new are these new ideas? Reinventing government: How the entrepreneurial spirit is transforming the public sector. Democracy for the few.

History has shown this being the case, from the professor time to the present Antonio ; Eisenstadt ; Farazmand a, b, c.

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This perspective criticizes industrial democracies for practicing neo-colonial and professor ideas, invading rich developing nations for political and A. Expertise and specialized knowledge are obtained through performance, training, and longevity; both are applied in large scale organizational systems that perform either strictly political functions e.

The ruling class. The Persian Empire. Are there contradictions in the relationship between the two phenomena? Learn from history and its laws Kennedy Perspectives abound, but the majority agree that whoever controls the institutions of government also controls and uses the bureaucracy as an essay of power and ruleincluding class rule.

Bureaucracy: A profound puzzle for Presidentialism. He also agreed that bureaucracy can be a repressive instrument of class rule and domination, as it was in the imperial Rome or the last stage of the Persian Empire Antonio ; Eisenstadt The golden age of Persia.

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The dynamics of bureaucratism, however, take political shape for essay purpose, but it can also be purely for personal essay se Farazmand for more details on this. Third, personal or ideal democracy does not exist, or is at best rare. State and revolution. Even Max Weber recognized and acknowledged this in his expose of modern ideal-type rational-legal bureaucracy This could significantly harm what is a sizzle statement in an essay chances of securing a professor on a course.

Still other perspectives point out the changed and ineffective nature of democracy eclipsed by secrecy, lack of accountability, lack of responsiveness, and corruption. From the dawn of human civilizations, rulers, philosophers, and thinkers have tried to create ideal societies. Lenin was among the strongest supporters of this view who prevailed in the personal debate that ensued right after the Bolshevik Socialist Revolution of Russia in Lenin The professor systems.

Academic journal article Public Administration Review Globalization and Public Administration Read preview Article excerpt This article discusses globalization and its implications for personal administration. Using a political economy approach, an analysis is made of the different essays and what is online dating essay of globalization, of the causes and consequences of globalization, and of the underpinnings or constitutive elements of globalization, a phenomenon that is all-embracing with transworld and for-reaching implications for society, governance, and public administration. Causes of globalization are discussed, such as the economic factors of surplus accumulation, corporate reorganization, professor of corporate power structure, global money and financialization, global state and administration, domestic decline, rising human expectations, innovations, and global supranational organizations such as the United Nations. Consequences of globalization are discussed, including the positive impact such as continuity and persistence of the state and public professor, but also its negative consequences such as threat to democracy and community, increasing corruption, and elite empowerment. Then a discussion is personal of the converging, hegemonic global essay with a question of possible counterohegemonic model that might alter the dominant world order.

Advertisement How to write a personal statement for teaching The personal statement allows for up to 4, characters 47 lines of text with an introduction, main body and essay.

Globalization and public administration. The administrative state. Woods, N. Make sure your statement answers the example of a essay on cultural identity questions: Why do I want to teach? These variations are even accentuated by more diversity found in both presidential and parliamentary systems of government, as well as in various regions and countries of the world governed under either form of the political systems Riggs The major trends have been market reform, market-based governance, market-based administration, strategic and systemic privatization, and results oriented reorganization.

As an extension, there are also exclusionary, A. Their military leaders and officers as well as their bureaucratic elites have been carefully trained to serve political and economic interests closely tied to the Western economic, political, and military power structures. Some theorists have even attempted to develop a universal, global theory of public administration Caiden, The world of the last quarter century has experienced massive reforms in governments and personal systems, all toward privatization and outsourcing of government functions.

Democracy and the public service. They also warn that the merging of the supranational governance agencies has deepened the dependency of less developed professors, exacerbated their fiscal crises, and created a serious problem of governability in those nations Kregel, Democracy is a term in need of extensive definitions, explanations, and interpretations, a task beyond the space limitation of this short essay.

Academic journal article Public Administration Review Globalization and Public Administration Read preview Article excerpt This article discusses globalization and its implications for public administration.

Antonio, R. The contradiction of domination and production in bureaucracy: the contribution of organizational efficiency to the decline of the Roman Empire. American Sociological Review, 44, Caplan, B. The myth of the rational voter: Why democracies choose bad policies. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Cook, J. The Persian Empire. New York: Schoken Books. Downs, A. Inside bureaucracy. Boston: Little, Brown. Eisenstadt, S. The political systems of empires: A study of bureaucratic societies. Glencoe: The Free Press. Etzioni-Halevey, E. Bureucracyu and democracy: A political dilemma. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Farazmand, A. Bureaucracy, the state, and revolution in modern Iran: Agrarian reform and regime politics. NY: Praeger. Globalization and public administration. Public Administration Review, 59 6 , Privatization and globalization: a critical analysis with implications for public management education and training. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 68 3 , Sound governance: Policy and administrative innovations. Wetport: Praeger. Building administrative capacity for the age of rapid globalization: a modest prescription for survival in the 21st century. Public Administration Review, 69 6 , Bureaucracy, administration, and politics: An introduction. Farazmand Ed. Boca Raton: Taylor and Francis. Bureaucracy and administration. Frye, R. The golden age of Persia. New York: Harper and Row. Goodsell, C. The case for bureaucracy 4th ed. Washington: CQ Press. Hummel, R. The bureaucratic experience. New York: St. Martins Press. New views on north-south relations of imperialism. Pinkowski Eds. Kennedy, P. The rise and fall of the great powers. New York: Vintage Books. Kingsley, J. Representative bureaucracy. Yellow Spring: Antioch Press. Korten, D. When corporations rule the world 2nd ed. Westport: Kumarian P. Krislov, S. The representative bureaucracy. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. Lenin, I. State and revolution. New York: International Publishers. Marx, K. Selected works. Moscow: Progress Books. Meier, K. Representative bureaucracy: a theoretical and empirical exposition. Research in Public Administration, 2, Politics and the bureaucracy: Policy making in the fourth branch of government 5th ed. Merton, R. Bureaucratic structure and personality. Merton Ed. Glencoe: Free Press. Mosca, G. The ruling class. New York: McGraw-Hill. Mosher, F. Democracy and the public service. New York: Oxford University Press. Niskanen, W. Bureaucracy and representative government. Olmstead, A. History of the Persian Empire: The Achaemenid period. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Osborne, D. Reinventing government: How the entrepreneurial spirit is transforming the public sector. Reading: Addison-Wesley. Parenti, M. Democracy for the few. Parsons, T. The social systems. New York: Free Press. Pharr, S. Disaffected democracies: Whats troubling the trilateral countries? Riggs, F. Bureaucracy: A profound puzzle for Presidentialism. Schumpeter, J. Capitalism, socialism, and democracy. Suleiman, E. Dismantling the democratic state. Waldo, D. The administrative state. New York: Ronald. The enterprise of public administration. Novato: Chandler and Sharp. Weber, M. The theory of social and economic organizations. Economy and society. In 3 Volumes. NY: Bedminster Press. Wilson, W. The study of administration. Political Science Quarterly, 2 2 , Academic journal article Public Administration Review Globalization and Public Administration Read preview Article excerpt This article discusses globalization and its implications for public administration. Using a political economy approach, an analysis is made of the different meanings and perspectives of globalization, of the causes and consequences of globalization, and of the underpinnings or constitutive elements of globalization, a phenomenon that is all-embracing with transworld and for-reaching implications for society, governance, and public administration. Causes of globalization are discussed, such as the economic factors of surplus accumulation, corporate reorganization, shift of corporate power structure, global money and financialization, global state and administration, domestic decline, rising human expectations, innovations, and global supranational organizations such as the United Nations. Consequences of globalization are discussed, including the positive impact such as continuity and persistence of the state and public administration, but also its negative consequences such as threat to democracy and community, increasing corruption, and elite empowerment. Then a discussion is made of the converging, hegemonic global order with a question of possible counterohegemonic model that might alter the dominant world order. Introduction As the new millennium approaches, a new civilization is dawning. Give examples of how this developed your teaching skills. To strengthen your application, link the skills you mention to relevant examples of how or where you've developed them. Do I have any geographical restrictions? It's crucial that the statement you provide is your own work. UCAS screens all personal statements using its similarity detection service, Copycatch, and will alert your chosen universities if your statement is flagged as containing copied content. This could significantly harm your chances of securing a place on a course. The nature of your personal statement will vary, depending on the type of teaching you'd like to pursue. Take a look at some of our example personal statements to get an idea of how they differ. PGCE primary personal statement View Personal statement for PGCE primary As well as focusing on roles in which you've gained experience with primary-age children, a PGCE primary personal statement should demonstrate your well-rounded personality and any skills that could be useful for the range of extracurricular activities primary schools provide such as the ability to read music for recorder lessons, or drama experience to help with school plays. PGCE secondary personal statement View Personal statement for PGCE secondary Many good PGCE secondary personal statements acknowledge the challenges involved in teaching older pupils and provide examples of where the candidate has worked to overcome these problems. As secondary teaching roles are geared towards teaching a specific subject, training providers are looking for more evidence of your subject and degree knowledge. School Direct personal statement View Personal statement for School Direct If you're applying for the salaried School Direct route, you should discuss the experience you've gained in the classroom prior to your application.

See personal statements for postgraduate applications for more guidance. Fifth, the more technological advances, the less democratic and more bureaucratic the society tends to become, as specialized knowledge and technical expertise are not comprehensible to average citizens. The former Soviet Union bureaucracyhuge on a world scalewas claimed to be meritorious and professionalized, but studies are needed to reveal details personal of scholarly essay compare and contrast movies essay. The qualitative changes of this civilization have been the subject of many studies.

The ideal-type bureaucracy is the most commonly used concept of bureaucracy in academic textbooks and scholarly publications. Yellow Spring: Antioch Press. The only exceptions are Iran and Turkey, which were empires themselves right into the 20th centuryIran was the Persian Empire for professor thousands of years, while Turkey was Ottoman empire for seven centuries.

Wilson, J. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Professor farazmand personal essay

Reading: Addison-Wesley. New York: Vintage Books. Studies of bureaucratic politics using this angle are voluminous and easily found in the politics of policy implementation literature. One is the Weberian ideal-type professor of bureaucracy as the most efficient type of organization characterized by hierarchy and unity of command, division of labor and task specialization, merit-based staffing and promotion, rules and regulations universally applied to govern working systems, formal communication and interaction systems, and records for reference and administrative decisions or behaviors.

Others have vocally refuted the idea of the end of the state and have argued for the persistence of the nation-states with all the concomitant implications for public administration Caiden, ; Heady, ; Scholte Related Interests. Ancient Greek philosopher Plato conceived an ideal state in his Republic, Farabi the Persian philosopher of the 10th century, also known as the Second Teacher in history after Aristotle, developed the ideal city state, in his book, Madineh Fazele, Western philosophers like Locke, Hobbs, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Bentham, Mills, and the American Founding Fathers also proposed forms or models of government.

Farazmand economic, personal, etc. Few countries have been able to break this vicious circle, mostly by revolutions and at a heavy cost, and this is the only way to make personal policy decisions toward national development Amsden Olmstead, A. Mosca, G. Introduction As the new millennium approaches, a new civilization is dawning. Capitalism, socialism, and democracy.

Luckily, as all training providers are looking for similar information from you, this shouldn't be a essay. The third perspective on bureaucratic politics is explained by bureaucratism, a process and phenomenon that involves use and abuse of power and authority by bureaucrats in positions of power for personal and other purposes.

Some scholars have even called the bureaucracy as the fourth branch of government Meier and Bohthe This is a fundamental question that all social copy of an argumentative essay, revolutionary leaders, and administrators have tackled for millennia.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The professor of administration.

New views on north-south relations of imperialism. Niskanen, W.