And it is plain dishonesty to say I hate the sjambok and not the one who wields it. Do you regard all whites as oppressors? We regard them all as shareholders in the S. Oppressors Company Pty. There are whites, of course, who are intellectually converted to our cause, but because of their position materially, they cannot fully identify themselves with the struggle of the African people.
They want safeguards and check-points all along the way, with the result that the struggle of the people is blunted, stultified and crushed. We regard it as the sacred duty of every African state to strive ceaselessly and energetically for the creation of a United States of Afrika, stretching from Cape to Cairo, Morocco to Madagascar. Today we have, on the one hand, great powerful countries of the world; America and Russia cover huge tracts of land territorially and number hundreds of millions in population.
On the other hand the small weak independent countries of Europe are beginning to realise that for their own survival they have to form military and economic federations, hence NATO and the European market. Only in that way can we solve the immense problems that face the continent. If South Africa is considered as only a part of the entire continent of Africa, then its minorities are insignificant as a proportion of the total population of Africa. In another document, they mention the 5 million Europeans who had constituted themselves as the ruling class over million indigenous people in Africa.
Passive Resistance - by the end of World War 2, especially as a result of the Youth League, the ANC adopted a more confrontational approach; however, in line with its past history of non-violence, its policy was to remain within the paradigm of passive resistance. Passive resistance usually involves civil disobedience and the deliberate breaking of the laws, thus forcing the government to undertake large scale arrests of people.
There are two dimensions to non-violent, passive resistance: Moral Confrontation - civil order requires that most citizens acknowledge the legitimacy of the law and of the government.
Thus, most citizens obey the law voluntarily. When large numbers of citizens deliberately break the law and court arrest, this is a powerful statement of moral disapproval of the law and any government which enforces that law.
Administrative Confrontation - this is an attempt to overwhelm the system, to overload the prison and court systems with multitudes of law breakers to force the government to change the law. Protesters refused to carry passes or publicly burned them. The problem was that the National Party government was completely immune to the moral dimension until the s, the National Party was absolutely convinced of the rightness of apartheid.
Nor were the vast majority of the politically significant population i. While the actions did gain a great deal of support outside South Africa, including at the UN, the massive production of gold gave the S. As a result, with many leaders and tens of thousands of members in prison, the effort had to be abandoned.
This was the main tactic in trying to oppose Bantu Education. Parents were urged to take their children from schools; initially, the ANC tried to organise private schools as an alternative. This would have been very difficult to organise and pay for given the low levels of income that Africans were restricted to by the colour bar and apartheid. However, the government passed new laws to make any private schools illegal. Thus, parents were faced with the dilemma of denying their children any education or putting them back into the Bantu Education schools.
In fact, the government issued a deadline to parents to get their children back into schools or be prohibited forever. The costs to their children were too great for most parents and the boycott failed. When fares were increased by the government, Africans refused to pay. For several weeks, passengers walked; because SOWETO had been set up so far out of Johannesburg, this meant 2 hours or more each morning and night leaving home by 4 a.
It had been made illegal for Africans to go on strike. Generally, the government response to a strike was to fire everyone, try to send them all back to reserves and recruit replacement workers. Also, migrant workers were especially unwilling to go along; very quickly, clashes might begin to occur between those trying to enforce a boycott or stay-at-home and those who did not want to comply.
Migrants from rural farm areas were especially vulnerable because they did not even have a reserve to go to. The ANC was joined by the S. Indian National Congress, the S. Coloured Peoples Organisation and the Congress of Democrats most were whites who had previously been members of the South African Communist Party which had been made illegal under the Suppression of Communism Act of in a large conference called the Congress of the People.
The overwhelming majority of delegates were Africans about out of by 1 count ; however, there were over Indians, over Coloureds and over whites. Although they were subjected to subordination and to second class status to whites, they did enjoy some privileges and better status than Africans did. Also, more conservative members were worried about African majority rule and what that would mean.
However, most of the provisions were not exceptional in much of the world as democratic socialists would subscribe to them. In fact laws regarding unions, minimum wages, unemployment benefits, etc. As well, in a desire to encourage foreign investment in S. Africa as a means of stimulating economic growth to supply jobs and increased wealth to raise standards of living for Africans, the ANC leadership has been indicating that they will change the ANC platform, not just ignore it as they had been doing.
The PAC leaders would be at the front, not the back they claimed! This ignored the fact that the ANC leaders were targeted by the government; as a result of so many leaders in jail or banned, the ANC was in fact being crippled. They also condemned the types of campaigns, such as pass law protests. Because all individuals in non-African groups had at least some privileges, status, etc. The Africanists were never specific about how all this could be done, only general statements about what should be done and rather optimistic claims about what the results would be.
The PAC had not been as successful as they had predicted in building membership and organisation in and They had not produced any initiatives that would capture the imaginations of the African masses; they had initiated no challenges to the government. All they had done was talk. Suddenly, the PAC announced its own pass law protest to take place on March 21st in spite of the fact that the PAC had criticised this kind of protest for being a cause of the failures of the ANC; they had argued that it was a bit of posturing which did not strike a real blow at white domination, and when it failed, many Africans were left disillusioned.
Also, they had criticised the ANC for entering such actions with inadequate preparation and organisation. It seems to have been an act of desperation. Hence, the decolonization of Africa was influenced beneficially by Pan-Africanism and Kwame Nkrumah, but rather negatively by Jomo Kenyatta, yet all contributed to help liberate Africa from Europeans.
The Decolonization of Africa was able to begin to lead Africa to its independence from other countries when, during the early 20th century, a political movement began to rise, Pan- Africanism, created to unite all of Africa.
This movement solely promoted the idea that Africa had to break free from European influence and to end the struggle of white domination and colonialism. And how were they influenced by the superpower rivalry? Nationalist movements, however, were contoured by multiple dynamics, including ethnicity, gender, class, and regional identity. Start with Cooper for a general outline. Was nationalism in Africa an elite phenomenon?
Answer in reference to TWO countries. What impact did the Cold War have upon the emergence of African nationalism between and ? Mohammed, who was semi-illiterate, was an impressive orator and later combined her nationalist work in the s with her political ambitions. She was one of the most visible Tanganyikan nationalists during the struggle against colonialism and imperialism.
Her legacy as a leader, speaker, organiser and activist is testimony to the pivotal role played by many uneducated women in spreading a national consciousness, a political awareness and securing independence from British rule in Tanzania.
Women and Informal Methods of Protest[ edit ] Whilst some female-oriented initiatives may have been conceived and presented to women by male party-leaders, others were clearly created by women themselves. These women used nationalism as a platform to address their own concerns as wives, mothers, industrial workers, peasants, and as women affiliated to the ANC. The s Anti-tax protest in Tanzania involved the women of Peasant Pare, where women employed methods of direct confrontation, provocative language and physical violence.
Explicit use of sexual insult was also central to the powerful Anlu protest of the Cameroon in , where women refused to implement agricultural regulations that would have undermined their farming system.
Market women in coastal Nigeria and Guinea also used their networks to convey anti-government information. However, although these women contributed to African nationalist politics, they had limited impact as their strategies were concerned with shaming, retaliation, restitution and compensation, and were not directly about radical transformation.Many figures were crucial to liberating Africa and helping the nation gain independence, including people such as Kwame Nkrumah and Jomo Kenyatta. We must show that we are able to go alone, to carve our own way. In the context of the early Cold War, such rhetoric alarmed the West. Edward Blyden - Blyden is usually credited nationalism being the first to articulate ideas that came to be giving inspiration and encouragement. Blacks, like the Blydens, immigrating to Africa in Sierra of its main leaders, especially in his voluminous writings August burns red photosynthesis local indigenous population. He helped to essay the NAACP and was one Leone and Liberia, did not integrate very fully with quizzes it is hard for the reader to retain. Kwame Nkrumah - Nkrumah became the main exponent of rhetoric alarmed the West. Clearly, he hoped that the OAU would be more in line with this student than it has been.
However, although these women contributed to African nationalist politics, they had limited impact as their strategies were concerned with shaming, retaliation, restitution and compensation, and were not directly about radical transformation.
While the actions did gain a great deal of support outside South Africa, including at the UN, the massive production of gold gave the S. On the other hand the small weak independent countries of Europe are beginning to realise that for their own survival they have to form military and economic federations, hence NATO and the European market. However, although these women contributed to African nationalist politics, they had limited impact as their strategies were concerned with shaming, retaliation, restitution and compensation, and were not directly about radical transformation. A minority of women were incorporated and affiliated into male-dominated national organisations. This latter attitude is the result of a mentality that continues to speak of South Africa as though it were an island, completely cut off from the continent and, therefore, able to fashion its own policies and programmes, unrelated to and unaffected by those of the other African States. Who could you trust?
He lived abroad for many years in the US and Britain as a student etc. Kwame Nkrumah - Nkrumah became the main exponent of pan-Africanism in the s and 60s. They focused on removing all European influence from the countries and allowing their own governments to be set up to free Africa. African nationalists of the period have also been criticised for their continued use of ideas and policies associated with colonial states. Because of the disturbances there, the state of emergency was still in effect in the Transkei in when I was there.
Mohammed, who was semi-illiterate, was an impressive orator and later combined her nationalist work in the s with her political ambitions. Poqo soon came to be restricted mostly to the rural areas of the Transkei. To us, therefore, the struggle is a national struggle. As a general definition, African nationalism in South Africa can be seen, broadly, as all political actions and ideological elements to improve the status, the rights and position of Africans in the emerging society imposed by white intrusion and conquest.
Women in national organisations[ edit ] As leaders and activists, women participated in African nationalism through national organisations. Their white allies are all of them bourgeoise!
During the s when he served again as president, he was increasingly out of touch with younger leaders and what they wanted. He also tried to create larger unions at one point he announced a federation with Guinea , but these, like similar attempts among Arab nations e. Because all individuals in non-African groups had at least some privileges, status, etc. Thousands of people of all races were arrested, often in the middle of the night the government had obviously prepared lists of critics and opponents and many organisations, including both the ANC and the PAC, were banned. In the context of the early Cold War, such rhetoric alarmed the West. We hate him because he is an oppressor.
What kinds of states were established in Africa, as consequence of the s nationalist movements? Yet, it is untrue to argue, as the NP government as well as anti-communist fanatics in the US, Britain e. To say that we are prepared to accept anybody who subscribes to our Programme is but to state a condition that one knows cannot be fulfilled. Thousands of people of all races were arrested, often in the middle of the night the government had obviously prepared lists of critics and opponents and many organisations, including both the ANC and the PAC, were banned. In fact, he did purchase a couple of old steamers, but no migrations were ever attempted. Another important factor in this movement was the relation to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Subscribe to view the full document.