Locke did not return home until after the Glorious Revolution. Locke accompanied Mary II back to England in Locke's close friend Lady Masham invited him to join her at Otes, the Mashams' country house in Essex.
Although his time there was marked by variable health from asthma attacks, he nevertheless became an intellectual hero of the Whigs. During this period he discussed matters with such figures as John Dryden and Isaac Newton. He died on 28 October , and is buried in the churchyard of the village of High Laver ,  east of Harlow in Essex, where he had lived in the household of Sir Francis Masham since Locke never married nor had children.
He did not quite see the Act of Union of , though the thrones of England and Scotland were held in personal union throughout his lifetime. Constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy were in their infancy during Locke's time. Ideas In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Locke's Two Treatises were rarely cited.
Historian Julian Hoppit said of the book, "except among some Whigs, even as a contribution to the intense debate of the s it made little impression and was generally ignored until though in Oxford in it was reported to have made 'a great noise' ".
However, with the rise of American resistance to British taxation, the Second Treatise gained a new readership; it was frequently cited in the debates in both America and Britain. The first American printing occurred in in Boston. Michael Zuckert has argued that Locke launched liberalism by tempering Hobbesian absolutism and clearly separating the realms of Church and State.
He had a strong influence on Voltaire who called him "le sage Locke". His arguments concerning liberty and the social contract later influenced the written works of Alexander Hamilton , James Madison , Thomas Jefferson , and other Founding Fathers of the United States.
In fact, one passage from the Second Treatise is reproduced verbatim in the Declaration of Independence, the reference to a "long train of abuses".
I consider them as the three greatest men that have ever lived, without any exception, and as having laid the foundation of those superstructures which have been raised in the Physical and Moral sciences". Locke redefined subjectivity, or self, and intellectual historians such as Charles Taylor and Jerrold Seigel argue that Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding marks the beginning of the modern Western conception of the self.
Happily, this pitch it seldom attains. But what a Tully or a Demosthenes could scarcely effect over a Roman or Athenian audience, every Capuchin, every itinerant or stationary teacher can perform over the generality of mankind, and in a higher degree, by touching such gross and vulgar passions.
Mere reason is insufficient to convince us of its veracity: and whoever is moved by Faith to assent to it, is conscious of a continued miracle in his own person, which subverts all the principles of his understanding, and gives him a determination to believe what is most contrary to custom and experience.
If we take in our hand any volume; of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance; let us ask, Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or number? Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence? Commit it then to the flames: For it can contain nothing but sophistry and illusion. If any false opinion, embraced from appearances, has been found to prevail; as soon as farther experience and sounder reasoning have given us juster notions of human affairs, we retract our first sentiment, and adjust anew the boundaries of moral good and evil.
It was republished several times during Hume's life with minor variations. As every enquiry, which regards religion, is of the utmost importance, there are two questions in particular, which challenge our attention, to wit, that concerning its foundation in reason, and that concerning its origin in human nature.
Happily, the first question, which is the most important, admits of the most obvious, at least, the clearest, solution. The whole frame of nature bespeaks an intelligent author; and no rational enquirer can, after serious reflection, suspend his belief a moment with regard to the primary principles of genuine Theism and Religion.
But the other question, concerning the origin of religion in human nature, is exposed to some more difficulty. The belief of invisible, intelligent power has been very generally diffused over the human race, in all places and in all ages; but it has neither perhaps been so universal as to admit of no exception, nor has it been, in any degree, uniform in the ideas, which it has suggested.
Some nations have been discovered, who entertained no sentiments of Religion, if travellers and historians may be credited; and no two nations, and scarce any two men, have ever agreed precisely in the same sentiments. Introduction That original intelligence, say the MAGIANS, who is the first principle of all things, discovers himself immediately to the mind and understanding alone; but has placed the sun as his image in the visible universe; and when that bright luminary diffuses its beams over the earth and the firmament, it is a faint copy of the glory which resides in the higher heavens.
If you would escape the displeasure of this divine being, you must be careful never to set your bare foot upon the ground, nor spit into a fire, nor throw any water upon it, even though it were consuming a whole city. Who can express the perfections of the Almighty? Even the noblest of his works, if compared to him, are but dust and rubbish.
How much more must human conception fall short of his infinite perfections? His smile and favour renders men for ever happy; and to obtain it for your children, the best method is to cut off from them, while infants, a little bit of skin, about half the breadth of a farthing. Take two bits of cloth, say the Roman catholics, about an inch or an inch and a half square, join them by the corners with two strings or pieces of tape about sixteen inches long, throw this over your head, and make one of the bits of cloth lie upon your breast, and the other upon your back, keeping them next your skin: There is not a better secret for recommending yourself to that infinite Being, who exists from eternity to eternity.
Part VII - Confirmation of this doctrine From the comparison of theism and idolatry, we may form some other observations, which will also confirm the vulgar observation that the corruption of the best things gives rise to the worst.
Instead of the destruction of monsters, the subduing of tyrants, the defence of our native country; whippings and fastings, cowardice and humility, abject submission and slavish obedience, are become the means of obtaining celestial honours among mankind. Part X - With regard to courage or abasement To oppose the torrent of scholastic religion by such feeble maxims as these, that it is impossible for the same thing to be and not to be, that the whole is greater than a part, that two and three make five; is pretending to stop the ocean with a bullrush.
Will you set up profane reason against sacred mystery? No punishment is great enough for your impiety. And the same fires, which were kindled for heretics, will serve also for the destruction of philosophers.
Part XI - With regard to reason or absurdity How can you worship leeks and onions? If we worship them, replies the latter; at least, we do not, at the same time, eat them. But what strange object of adoration are cats and monkeys? They are at least as good as the relics or rotten bones of martyrs, answers his no less learned antagonist. Are you not mad, insists the Catholic, to cut one another's throat about the preference of a cabbage or a cucumber?
Yes, says the pagan; I allow it, if you will confess, that those are still madder, who fight about the preference among volumes of sophistry, ten thousand of which are not equal in value to one cabbage or cucumber. Part XII - With regard to doubt or conviction We may observe, that, notwithstanding the dogmatical, imperious style of all superstition, the conviction of the religionists, in all ages, is more affected than real, and scarcely ever approaches, in any degree, to that solid belief and persuasion, which governs us in the common affairs of life.
Men dare not avow, even to their own hearts, the doubts which they entertain on such subjects: They make a merit of implicit faith; and disguise to themselves their real infidelity, by the strongest asseverations and most positive bigotry. But nature is too hard for all their endeavours, and suffers not the obscure, glimmering light, afforded in those shadowy regions, to equal the strong impressions, made by common sense and by experience. The usual course of men's conduct belies their words, and shows, that their assent in these matters is some unaccountable operation of the mind between disbelief and conviction, but approaching much nearer to the former than to the latter.
Part XII - With regard to doubt or conviction And any practice, recommended to him, which either serves to no purpose in life, or offers the strongest violence to his natural inclinations; that practice he will the more readily embrace, on account of those very circumstances, which should make him absolutely reject it. It seems the more purely religious, because it proceeds from no mixture of any other motive or consideration. And if, for its sake, he sacrifices much of his ease and quiet, his claim of merit appears still to rise upon him, in proportion to the zeal and devotion which he discovers.
In restoring a loan, or paying a debt, his divinity is nowise beholden to him; because these acts of justice are what he was bound to perform, and what many would have performed, were there no god in the universe. But if he fast a day, or give himself a sound whipping; this has a direct reference, in his opinion, to the service of God. No other motive could engage him to such austerities. By these distinguished marks of devotion, he has now acquired the divine favour; and may expect, in recompence, protection and safety in this world, and eternal happiness in the next.
Part XIV - Bad influence of popular religions on morality The more exquisite any good is, of which a small specimen is afforded us, the sharper is the evil, allied to it; and few exceptions are found to this uniform law of nature.
The most sprightly wit borders on madness; the highest effusions of joy produce the deepest melancholy; the most ravishing pleasures are attended with the most cruel lassitude and disgust; the most flattering hopes make way for the severest disappointments. And, in general, no course of life has such safety for happiness is not to be dreamed of as the temperate and moderate, which maintains, as far as possible, a mediocrity, and a kind of insensibility, in every thing.
As the good, the great, the sublime, the ravishing are found eminently in the genuine principles of theism; it may be expected, from the analogy of nature, that the base, the absurd, the mean, the terrifying will be equally discovered in religious fictions and chimeras.
Part XV - General corollary The universal propensity to believe in invisible, intelligent power, if not an original instinct, being at least a general attendant of human nature, may be considered as a kind of mark or stamp, which the divine workman has set upon his work; and nothing surely can more dignify mankind, than to be thus selected from all other parts of the creation, and to bear the image or impression of the universal Creator.
But consult this image, as it appears in the popular religions of the world. How is the deity disfigured in our representations of him! What caprice, absurdity, and immorality are attributed to him! How much is he degraded even below the character, which we should naturally, in common life, ascribe to a man of sense and virtue!
Part XV - General corollary What a noble privilege is it of human reason to attain the knowledge of the supreme Being; and, from the visible works of nature, be enabled to infer so sublime a principle as its supreme Creator? But turn the reverse of the medal.
Survey most nations and most ages. Examine the religious principles, which have, in fact, prevailed in the world. You will scarcely be persuaded, that they are any thing but sick men's dreams: Or perhaps will regard them more as the playsome whimsies of monkies in human shape, than the serious, positive, dogmatical asseverations of a being, who dignifies himself with the name of rational.
Part XV - General corollary Hear the verbal protestations of all men: Nothing so certain as their religious tenets. Examine their lives: You will scarcely think that they repose the smallest confidence in them.
The greatest and truest zeal gives us no security against hypocrisy: The most open impiety is attended with a secret dread and compunction. No theological absurdities so glaring that they have not, sometimes, been embraced by men of the greatest and most cultivated understanding.
No religious precepts so rigorous that they have not been adopted by the most voluptuous and most abandoned of men. Part XV - General corollary Ignorance is the mother of Devotion: A maxim that is proverbial, and confirmed by general experience. Look out for a people, entirely destitute of religion: If you find them at all, be assured, that they are but few degrees removed from brutes.
What so pure as some of the morals, included in some theological system? What so corrupt as some of the practices, to which these systems give rise? Immanuel Kant Although fond of company and conversation with others, Kant isolated himself, and resisted friends' attempts to bring him out of his isolation. It has been noted that in , in response to one of these offers by a former pupil, Kant wrote: Any change makes me apprehensive, even if it offers the greatest promise of improving my condition, and I am persuaded by this natural instinct of mine that I must take heed if I wish that the threads which the Fates spin so thin and weak in my case to be spun to any length.
My great thanks, to my well-wishers and friends, who think so kindly of me as to undertake my welfare, but at the same time a most humble request to protect me in my current condition from any disturbance. Although now uniformly recognized as one of the greatest works in the history of philosophy, this Critique was largely ignored upon its initial publication.
The book was long, over pages in the original German edition, and written in a convoluted style. It received few reviews, and these granted it no significance. Kant's former student, Johann Gottfried Herder criticized it for placing reason as an entity worthy of criticism instead of considering the process of reasoning within the context of language and one's entire personality.
Additionally, Garve and Feder also faulted Kant's Critique for not explaining differences in perception of sensations. These well-received and readable tracts include one on the earthquake in Lisbon that was so popular that it was sold by the page.
Recognizing the need to clarify the original treatise, Kant wrote the Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics in as a summary of its main views. Kant's reputation gradually rose through the latter portion of the s, sparked by a series of important works: the essay, " Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?
But Kant's fame ultimately arrived from an unexpected source. In , Karl Leonhard Reinhold published a series of public letters on Kantian philosophy. In these letters, Reinhold framed Kant's philosophy as a response to the central intellectual controversy of the era: the Pantheism Dispute.
Friedrich Jacobi had accused the recently deceased Gotthold Ephraim Lessing a distinguished dramatist and philosophical essayist of Spinozism. Such a charge, tantamount to atheism, was vigorously denied by Lessing's friend Moses Mendelssohn , leading to a bitter public dispute among partisans. The controversy gradually escalated into a debate about the values of the Enlightenment and the value of reason.
Reinhold maintained in his letters that Kant's Critique of Pure Reason could settle this dispute by defending the authority and bounds of reason. Reinhold's letters were widely read and made Kant the most famous philosopher of his era. Later work and death Kant published a second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason Kritik der reinen Vernunft in , heavily revising the first parts of the book.
Most of his subsequent work focused on other areas of philosophy. He continued to develop his moral philosophy, notably in 's Critique of Practical Reason known as the second Critique and 's Metaphysics of Morals. The Critique of Judgment the third Critique applied the Kantian system to aesthetics and teleology.
It was in this critique where Kant wrote one of his most popular statements, "it is absurd to hope that another Newton will arise in the future who will make comprehensible to us the production of a blade of grass according to natural laws".
These works were well received by Kant's contemporaries and confirmed his preeminent status in 18th-century philosophy.But nature is too hard for all their endeavours, and suffers not the obscure, glimmering light, afforded in those shadowy regions, to equal the strong impressions, made by common sense and by experience. Second, the "association of impressions": the mind tends to move from one passion to another passion that resembles it in feeling e. Many of Kant's most important disciples and followers including Reinhold , Beck and Fichte transformed the Kantian position into increasingly radical forms of idealism. However, with the rise of American resistance to British taxation, the Second Treatise gained a new readership; it was frequently cited in the debates in both America and Britain. The reflected light reaches the human eye, passes through the cornea, is focused by the lens onto the retina where it forms an image similar to that formed by light passing through a pinhole into a camera obscura. The final four experiments focus on how easily a dedicated to Sodium allyl sulfonate synthesis examination of the "compound passions", i. Sections 6-12[ edit ] The next six sections are doubts the reader may have while observing the Critical. The cause of a passion is what calls up the passion: e. Finally, Hume examines the qualities of external objects related to us. Next, Hume uses the Constructive Phase to resolve any transition is made from one passion to another.
In his essay on the theory of winds, Kant laid out an original insight into the coriolis force. Is he willing to prevent evil, but not able? As was common at his time, he became a merchant's assistant, but he had to leave his native Scotland. Hume elaborates more on this last principle of cause and effect. His account easily accommodates property : he defines it as private use consistent with the laws of justice, contends that whether justice be a natural or artificial virtue our minds naturally associate owners with their belongings, and observes that all things "useful, beautiful or surprising" call up pride in their owner. Necessity, hunger, want, stimulate the strong and courageous: Fear, anxiety, terror, agitate the weak and infirm.
But, if the liberty of the press ever be lost, it must be lost at once. Philo to Cleanthes, Part IV If the material world rests upon a similar ideal world, this ideal world must rest upon some other; and so on, without end. Finally, Hume examines the qualities of external objects related to us.
After noting that being dangerous is not the same as being false, Hume recalls that his "necessity" is a very attenuated one: there is nothing dangerous or even controversial about saying that constant conjunction and causal inference apply to human action as well as physical objects. Locke did not return home until after the Glorious Revolution. To the objection that though health and sickness produce pleasure and pain in us, they are not typically sources of pride or humility, he recalls that these passions require a long-lasting cause related only to ourselves or a few others—thus a long record of exceptionally poor health can in fact be a source of shame. Reinhold maintained in his letters that Kant's Critique of Pure Reason could settle this dispute by defending the authority and bounds of reason.
Second, because our judgments are strongly influenced by "comparison", this relation must apply only to ourselves or a few others. But Hume goes on to note that benevolence and anger are despite the talk of "mixture" not an "essential part" of love and hatred; instead, they are distinct passions of their own that only happen to be naturally conjoined with the sensations of love and hatred, just as hunger is naturally conjoined with an empty stomach.
If any false opinion, embraced from appearances, has been found to prevail; as soon as farther experience and sounder reasoning have given us juster notions of human affairs, we retract our first sentiment, and adjust anew the boundaries of moral good and evil. Part I, Essay 6: Of The Independency of Parliament; first line often paraphrased as "It is a just political maxim, that every man must be supposed a knave.
Hume is mainly considered an anti-rationalist, denying the possibility for practical reason as a principle to exist, although other philosophers such as Christine Korsgaard , Jean Hampton , and Elijah Millgram claim that Hume is not so much of an anti-rationalist as he is just a sceptic of practical reason. Variant perhaps a paraphrase of this passage : It is not reason which is the guide of life, but custom. Hume's solution presents us with three levels of sympathy with misfortune: 1 weak sympathy, which makes us feel only the present misfortune of the afflicted, producing only contemptuous pity; 2 strong sympathy i. And because we have "a much stronger propensity to pride than to humility", there is more pride in contempt than there is humility in respect.
Men dare not avow, even to their own hearts, the doubts which they entertain on such subjects: They make a merit of implicit faith; and disguise to themselves their real infidelity, by the strongest asseverations and most positive bigotry. The following section sees Hume amending his account in response to a problem. When a person observes that one object or event consistently produces the same object or event, it results in "an expectation that a particular event a 'cause' will be followed by another event an 'effect' previously and constantly associated with it. Commerce, therefore, in my opinion, is apt to decay in absolute governments, not because it is there less secure, but because it is less honourable. Get into the boat this instant". However, the position was given to William Cleghorn  after Edinburgh ministers petitioned the town council not to appoint Hume because he was seen as an atheist.
It has been noted that in , in response to one of these offers by a former pupil, Kant wrote: Any change makes me apprehensive, even if it offers the greatest promise of improving my condition, and I am persuaded by this natural instinct of mine that I must take heed if I wish that the threads which the Fates spin so thin and weak in my case to be spun to any length. How much is he degraded even below the character, which we should naturally, in common life, ascribe to a man of sense and virtue! Though the natural relation of resemblance has little influence, he explains, external objects do not cause pride or humility without some relation of contiguity or causation—a fact he takes to confirm his overall account. Hume finds two ways for something like unexercised power to influence our passions: first, predictions of human behavior are absent "strong motives" plagued with uncertainty, and we can receive anticipatory pleasure or unease from probable or merely possible exercise of power tentatively reasoning from our own past conduct to guess what we might do ; second, a "false sensation of liberty" presents all feasible courses of action as fully possible to us, giving us an anticipatory pleasure unrelated to any reasoning from experience. The Logik has been considered of fundamental importance to Kant's philosophy, and the understanding of it. The theory of transcendental idealism that Kant later included in the Critique of Pure Reason was developed partially in opposition to traditional idealism.
Hume's separation between Matters of Fact and Relations of Ideas is often referred to as " Hume's fork ". Her surname is sometimes erroneously given as Porter.
Through the whole compass of human knowledge, there are no inferences more certain and infallible than these. You admire this prodigious variety and fecundity. The progressive stages of revision of Kant's teachings marked the emergence of German Idealism. When other pieces on religion by Hume are taken into consideration, it may be noted that they all end with apparently ironic statements reaffirming the truth of Christian religious views. Even people who show no emotion at their misfortune can arouse our pity due to the influence of general rules on our imagination.
These indirect passions are thus the product of the "double relation of impressions and ideas". For what is there in this subject, which should occasion a different conclusion or inference?