The place has a special interior with lots of artificial fruits and leaves in the ceiling. Nice service and excellent foods. Mintage Sushi and Asian Dining, Molovegen 9. Excellent sushi in beautiful locals, with a magnificent view of the fjord. Imported Japanese beer goes well with the fresh local fish. The menu also includes other Asian dishes, should sushi not be to your tastes. Not surprisingly, he features in a number of different Norse and Icelandic sagas. It was these sagas that mention a major trading place in Steinkjer that was even larger than Nidaros.
Almost certainly there were no permanent buildings, which would be the easiest to find, and many items that would have been traded would be made of organic materials that might not survive the ravages of the centuries. Apart from finding obvious clues, such as coins or metal or glass items that were clearly from foreign lands, archeologists have to rely on much more subtle evidence that can stand the test of time. One such hint that a location might be a trading place is the geography of the place itself, the researchers wrote in Vitark.
Most importantly, they note, Steinjker is located in a natural trading areas, at the mouth of a river at the innermost part of Trondheim fjord. It is also in a place where farmers have been working flat fields for centuries. Swords, beads and jewelry Another clue that archaeologists use to locate the possible trading place is a detailed map of the locations of all kinds of different archaeological finds that might suggest trade.
The logic here is that greater numbers of traded goods are more likely to be found in close proximity to a place of trade, with fewer traded goods found farther and farther from trading areas. Beads made of amber and glass are commonly traded, and the area around Steinkjer was rich with finds of these goods, with beads found in 28 different locales, the researchers said. Let us first have a look at the ethnonyms used to designate the Saami people throughout history, and how the ethnonym topic is referred to in some of the newspapers as a political issue.
The way a majority population names a minority reflects power and attitudes. Throughout history, the Saami population has been called Finns, Laps, even Finlaps Finlapper , often in a derogatory way. The ethnonym question arises early as an important political issue among the Saami.
Nils Lagli represents the majority population. It is obvious that the ethnonym question stirs up strong emotions, not only among the Saami. The question appears several times in my material. At the Saami national congress in Trondheim in , a resolution is passed demanding the legal right to the Saami ethnonym. Both papers, as well as Indhereds-Posten, start to use the Saami ethnonym more and more throughout the s see Fig.
By the late s, the Lap or Finn ethnonym is used very rarely in my main material. Open image in new window Fig. In any case, the use of the South Saami ethnonym is clearly an important factor when it comes to highlighting the Saami presence in the southern part of Saepmie.
In quite a few texts, though, we can see that Saami voices are referred to or reported in a relatively objective way.
To put it simply, the great bulk of the texts are about Saami affairs in various ways, while some also speak for the Saami.
Especially by the s, journalists try to see things from a Saami perspective. In the texts from around until the s, I have found instances of patronizing attitudes, othering and texts that represent Saami people as exotic, although most texts seem to abide to the current ideals of objectivity.
In this and the following sections, I will show how this picture varies throughout the period I have studied, depending on genre, topic and context. The text excerpts used to illustrate my findings have been translated from Norwegian into English. I use the ethnonym Finn, Lap or Sami as used in the source quoted. We read about a Saami family that has moved with their reindeer herd to a mountain area near Trondheim because of a problem with wolves in the area they left.
A local farmer visits the Saami couple to request compensation for damages done to his haystacks by the reindeer. Although presented as a news story, to a modern reader it appears more as a moral anecdote. The Saami are represented as friendly and hospitable, the underlying message is that conflicts can be solved through dialogue and appropriate compensation. Is this a typical representation of the relationship between Saami and farmers in the regional press towards the end of the nineteenth century?
The expanding farming activities needed more grazing land and there is increasing tension between reindeer herders and farmers by the end of the nineteenth century, not least in the South Saami area Fjellheim ; Salvesen , The Act introduced state-controlled reindeer grazing districts and corporative responsibility for grazing damage. It made it virtually impossible to reach out-of-court settlements, like the one we can read about in the text Jernsletten , 8— As many as one-third of the texts in my material are about reindeer herding in some way or another.
Some are about the conflict of interests between farming and reindeer herders; others are about problems connected to the big carnivores.
In my material, the carnivore problems dominate the reindeer herding category until the s, then other threats receive more attention for example, hydropower developments and artillery ranges.
The clash of interests between agriculture and reindeer husbandry is also represented, although relatively few texts in my material are about local conflicts. At any rate, the Saami are blamed for their actions. In a written statement in , The County Farming Association 20 is critical to some of the views in the report. Still, judging from my material, the press generally represents reindeer herding as something that naturally belongs in the region, and that the main threats are carnivores, hydropower plant construction and other infrastructure issues, not the grazing interests of farmers.
The assimilation policy was largely the effect of administrative measures, based on political consensus among majority politicians Salvesen , 47— However, it is possible to trace critical voices in the press. The background is the unreasonable compensation legislation in the Reindeer Herding Acts and that threatens to impoverish the Saami in dramatic ways.
Still, we are the rightful owners of the land they now, little by little, have taken away from us. A similar statement at the Saami meeting in Namsos is given a rather patronizing comment by a journalist for Trondhjems Adresseavis Trondheim as shown below.
In the text, we can read about all the issues that are raised in the later meetings of the early s: The newspaper issue, the reindeer pasture issue and the school issue. The issues mentioned are also among the focal points of the first national Saami congress in Trondheim in Borgen The longest and most extensive reports are from the meeting in Namsos in In part 2, the discussion following the speech is reported.
They believe it themselves. Belief is the main thing here. And based on this belief the topic is repeated again and again. There are a few short news items, but no news stories of any length in the papers in my study. However, the national congress is covered quite extensively in the Trondheim papers and the national press Lien That the Trondheim congress receives relatively little attention in the papers of the neighbouring county might be due to their regional profile.
In addition, of course, comes the fact that the smaller newspapers could not afford special correspondents in the same way as today. Nonetheless, this copy practice is also part of the news selection process of the editorial staff and subsequently, the agenda-setting of the newspaper. The first Saami School in Southern Saepmie was in fact established as early as The school was run until when the first state boarding school for South Saami children was opened in Hattfjelldal.
They wanted a state-funded boarding school for Saami children, with as many Saami teachers as possible. Even if the language of tuition had to be Norwegian at this point there was not yet an official written norm of South Saami , Saami should be maintained implicitly: as an oral language , as Sanna Jonassen puts it in an interview with Indherred in I will return to this interview in another context later.
As we can see from the sources, there is a strong wish for a state school. In , the topic is raised again in the regional papers. In retrospect, we can certainly see that this was way too optimistic. As most of the children live in nomadic families, it is difficult to keep them in ordinary schools.
North Saami. At the congress, Elsa Laula Renberg, one of the initiators of the meeting, spoke about the importance of Saami in school.
Beads made of amber and glass are commonly traded, and the area around Steinkjer was rich with finds of these goods, with beads found in 28 different locales, the researchers said. In addition, the Saami appear as highly competent mountain people and hunters. In my material, the carnivore problems dominate the reindeer herding category until the s, then other threats receive more attention for example, hydropower developments and artillery ranges. She makes a point of the fact that the Saami will now be legally defined as a people. Sanna Jonassen and her husband Anton Jonassen were both significant voices and initiators of the meetings. After the Saami meetings in the period —, there is increased media attention, followed by a period of relatively few texts annually until the s.
In the news report from , the farmer affected is named and appears in a photo. It shows that Saami women take an active part in working life and community life. But the finds surprised archaeologists, who now believe they have solved a centuries-old puzzle posed in Norse sagas.
However, the national congress is covered quite extensively in the Trondheim papers and the national press Lien The photo shows some of the participants in the Saami meeting in Steinkjer 19—21 March. We have large areas in relation to the population.
Not surprisingly, he features in a number of different Norse and Icelandic sagas. The newspaper feature is about industry, geography and history. At the same time, this positioning might be seen in metaphorical terms: As an expression of the fact that the Saami were almost made invisible as a result of the Norwegianization process of the first decades of the twentieth century. Her study is not quite comparable to mine, neither in timespan nor context regional newspapers vs.
The fourth category, History and Culture, is relatively comprehensive, from popular education articles about South Saami history and culture to sheer curiosities, i.
The future of reindeer husbandry and South Saami culture is also the topic in a feature article signed Ola Hjulstad? In quite a few texts, though, we can see that Saami voices are referred to or reported in a relatively objective way. Thus, we see until around , a patronizing tone in many texts that are otherwise seemingly pro-Saami; in other words, they are characterized by various degrees of othering. The article gives the impression of a trade at a crossroads between tradition and modernity. According to the article, the first people arrived in prehistoric times but the author does not connect these people to the Saami.
The interview with Sanna Jonassen is an early and unique instance of a Saami voice being referred to in an objective, respectful and empathic way. The status of the South Saami language is closely tied to the education topic. As a medieval city and a religious capital, Nidaros played an important role in international trade throughout the Middle Ages. In spite of varying degrees of othering and a few cases of exoticizing, the main impression is still that the regional papers in the Innherred region represent the Saami with respect and understanding. Some are about the conflict of interests between farming and reindeer herders; others are about problems connected to the big carnivores.
It shows that Saami women take an active part in working life and community life. The article states that the Saami arrived with their reindeer in the area in the seventeenth century. She thinks that in some fields: […] we in the South-Saami area have had it better than the North Saami. As far as I can see, TA presents Saami affairs in a relatively balanced way, focusing on problems as well as positive news, in line with the editorial angle on news in general. Consequently, the image of the Saami living in the outskirts is not surprising. In some cases, the othering is subtle, baked into the choice of words and syntax, in other cases obvious.
As hunters of the big predators, the Saami play a positive role, also seen from the point of view of the farming community. After the Saami meetings in the period —, there is increased media attention, followed by a period of relatively few texts annually until the s. You can fish, without charges, in 60 lakes and in several nearby rivers. As a medieval city and a religious capital, Nidaros played an important role in international trade throughout the Middle Ages. The Saami Finn-Paal was found dead in the forest, the case was investigated and a Swede was charged with murder. The first Saami School in Southern Saepmie was in fact established as early as
Eat[ edit ][ add listing ] Steinkjer has food spots to suit every taste, though remember that food prices are very high.
A news report from a Saami meeting may belong to both the reindeer herding category and the Saami politics category. In addition, the Saami appear as highly competent mountain people and hunters. The balance scales were constructed in a way that led the archaeologists to believe it came from the west -- not from Norway. Throughout history, the Saami population has been called Finns, Laps, even Finlaps Finlapper , often in a derogatory way. In the caption, the following are mentioned my translation : First row No.
In addition, the Saami appear as highly competent mountain people and hunters. I use the ethnonym Finn, Lap or Sami as used in the source quoted.