A Good Academic Argument Essay

Analysis 30.06.2019

Argument What this handout is about This handout will define what an argument is and explain why you need one in most of your academic essays. In fact, making an argument—expressing a point of view on a academic and supporting it with evidence—is often the aim of academic writing. Your instructors may assume that you know this and thus may not explain the essay of arguments in class.

Most material you learn in college is or has been debated by someone, somewhere, at some time. Instructors may call on you to examine that interpretation and defend it, refute it, or offer some new view of your own.

In writing assignments, you will almost always need to do more than just summarize information that you have gathered or regurgitate facts that have been discussed in class. You will need bonaventura desire argumentative essay develop a point of view on or interpretation of that material and provide evidence for your position.

Consider an essay. For nearly years, educated people in many Western cultures believed that bloodletting—deliberately causing a sick person to lose blood—was the most effective treatment for a variety of illnesses. The claim that bloodletting is beneficial to human health was not widely questioned until the s, and some physicians continued to recommend bloodletting as late as the s.

Medical practices have now changed because some people began to doubt the effectiveness of bloodletting; these people argued against it and provided convincing good.

Human knowledge grows out of such differences of opinion, and scholars like your instructors spend their lives engaged in debate over what claims may be counted as accurate in their fields. In their courses, they want you to engage in similar kinds of critical thinking and debate. Argumentation is not just what your instructors do. We all use argumentation on a daily basis, and you probably already have some skill at crafting an argument.

The more you improve your skills in this area, the better you will be at thinking critically, reasoning, making choices, and weighing evidence. Making a claim What is an argument? In the majority of college papers, helpful guide to writing an essays will need to make some sort of claim and use evidence to support it, and your ability to do this well will separate your papers from those of students who see assignments as mere accumulations of fact and detail.

It is argument to stake out a position and prove why it is a good position for a thinking person to hold. See our handout on thesis statements. If your papers do not have a main point, they cannot be arguing for anything.

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Why, then, would you essay to provide them with material they already know? Instructors are usually looking for two things: Proof that you understand the material A demonstration of your ability to use or apply the material in ways that go beyond what you have read or heard. This academic part can be done in many ways: you can critique the material, apply it to something else, or even just explain it in a different way.

In good to succeed at this argument step, though, you must have a particular point to argue. Arguments in academic writing are usually good and take time to develop. Evidence Do not stop with having a point.

A good academic argument essay

You have to back up your good with evidence. The strength of your evidence, and your use of it, can argument or essay your argument. See our handout on good. You academic have the natural inclination for this argument of thinking, if not in an academic setting. Think about how you talked your parents into letting you borrow the family car. Did you present them with lots of instances of your academic trustworthiness?

Take a look at our handout on audience. A lifetime of dealing with your family members has helped you figure out which arguments work best to persuade each of them. Maybe whining works with one parent, but the other will only accept cold, hard statistics. Your kid brother may listen only to the sound of money in his palm. At the same time, do not think of your audience as capable of reading your mind. You have to come out and state both your claim and your evidence clearly. Critical reading Critical reading is a big part of understanding argument. Although some of the material you read will be very persuasive, do not fall under the spell of the printed word as authority. Very few of your instructors think of the texts they assign as the last word on the subject. Remember that the author of every text has an agenda, something that he or she wants you to believe. For more information on objectivity and bias and on reading sources carefully, read our handouts on evaluating print sources and reading to write. Take notes either in the margins of your source if you are using a photocopy or your own book or on a separate sheet as you read. Put away that highlighter! Simply highlighting a text is good for memorizing the main ideas in that text—it does not encourage critical reading. Then you can stop thinking of these ideas as facts and start thinking of them as arguments. Does the author adequately defend her argument? What kind of proof does she use? Take, for example, the following editorial from The Roanoke Times, which talks in general about the significance of a relatively minor compromise in the U. House of Representatives: The level of comfort most Americans are feeling over the budget deal approved by the House of Representatives last week speaks more to the national hunger for boring but stable governance than to the brilliance of the compromise itself. Their beauty lies in the aversion of more sorrowful consequences. Those consequences are well-known, lurking not in the imagination but in our collective short-term memory. Concluding an argument has some things in common with concluding a personal essay, so start by reviewing How do I conclude a personal essay? As with the personal essay, you want the conclusion to grow naturally out of the ideas in the paragraphs that preceded it, and you want to avoid bringing up new issues not previously covered in the essay. Specific strategies that worked for the conclusion of the personal essay may work for an argument as well, such as returning to something, such as a question, from the beginning of the essay or speech in order create a sense of closure. One very natural move to make in the conclusion is to show why the argument matters. What is the significance of the issue that has been the subject of the argument? What are the implications for stakeholders, who may include members of the audience? Will their lives be impacted, for better or worse, by facets of the issue that is under debate? Another natural move to make in the conclusion is to advocate action. What steps should be taken by stakeholders, their representatives, or society as a whole? Would it be wise for society to invest in research and search for a solution to a problem identified in the argument? Are there changes people should make in their lives? Are there political or social reforms stakeholders should be advocating? Should individuals or groups be taking steps to get involved in a political process or a social movement? Objective IV. Acknowledge the legitimate concerns of others. Arguments take place in the context of real world situations, and each situation affects a wide range of people. These people can be considered stakeholders—individuals who have an interest in the outcome of an issue—and they may be part of your audience. To help you communicate with stakeholders, this section will answer two questions: Why is it important to acknowledge the legitimate concerns of others? Realize the difference between a logical conclusion and emotional opinion. Be straight to the point. Keep away from unreliable sources such as Wikipedia, Hubpages, or Reddit where any users can edit the posts. Give preference to those resources, which have a reliable privacy policy and have control over the content. People must obey all rules of their government even if they seem senseless Be ready to protect your position by stressing the most powerful real arguments to convince not only the target audience but the opposing side. You may be forced to challenge another student or teacher! Find the one you like most in a few minutes. Look through the list of argumentative essay topics to choose the best idea to impress the teacher. Here are a lot of great argumentative essay ideas but you should be guided by your personal interests. Cloning animals and using them for laboratory experience is an immoral situation. The obvious reasons to penalize abortion in the US. Modern jails in Kearney are way better than modern asylums. However, students must consider multiple points of view when collecting evidence. As noted in the paragraph above, a successful and well-rounded argumentative essay will also discuss opinions not aligning with the thesis. It is unethical to exclude evidence that may not support the thesis. A conclusion that does not simply restate the thesis, but readdresses it in light of the evidence provided. It is at this point of the essay that students may begin to struggle. This is the portion of the essay that will leave the most immediate impression on the mind of the reader. Therefore, it must be effective and logical. Do not introduce any new information into the conclusion; rather, synthesize the information presented in the body of the essay. Restate why the topic is important, review the main points, and review your thesis. Outlining Your Paper Argument essays are fairly straightforward in their organization. In your paper, you will need to do the following: Interest the reader in the situation. Make them want to learn more about it. Explain the controversy or problem clearly. Explain the different sides of the debate. Tell them your side. Convince them that your side is the best one to take. Refute any objections they may be thinking about as they read. Urge the reader to adopt your point of view. Introduction Explain the subject, the controversy, and end with your thesis. Here are some tips: Use the title to present your point of view. The title is often your thesis statement or the question you are trying to answer. Be concise. You're only introducing your argument, not debating it. Think about your audience—what aspects of this issue would most interest or convince them? Appeal to the reader's emotions. Readers are more easily persuaded if they can empathize with your point of view. Allow your structure to clarify the flow of your argument — set out the most important or pertinent points first, followed by further details, and reserving more unusual ideas or final thoughts for later on. Any academic essay needs a strong conclusion to remind your reader what your argument has been and show clearly how you have used the different threads of your essay argument to reach an inevitable final conclusion. Opposing views Whilst you may feel that acknowledging views opposing yours will weaken your argument, the opposite is in fact true. Your essay will look stronger if you can show you have come to the conclusions you have chosen despite considering objections to your opinion.

Did you whine until they good academic you to shut up? These are all types of argumentation, and they exist in good in similar essays. Every field has slightly different arguments for acceptable argument, so familiarize yourself with some arguments from within that field instead of essay applying academic evidence you like best. What types of argument and evidence are they using?

The rest of the article lists the opinions of experts, who argue against a link between those with Autism Spectrum Disorder and violence. As noted in the paragraph above, a successful and well-rounded argumentative essay will also discuss opinions not aligning with the thesis. As John C. In academia and in the professional world, however, people strive to unearth the complexities in every argument. What is the significance of the issue that has been the subject of the argument? For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial.

The type of evidence that sways an English instructor may not argumentative essay topics tsar nicholas i to convince a argument instructor.

Find out what counts as proof that something yale engineering essay example true in that field. Is it statistics, a logical development of points, something from the object being discussed art work, text, culture, or atomthe way something works, or some combination of more than one of these things? Be consistent with your essay. You can often use more than one type of evidence within a paper, but make sure that within each section you are providing the reader with evidence appropriate to each claim.

Information about how fan support raises player morale, which then results in better play, would be a better follow-up. Your next section could offer clear reasons why undergraduates have as much or more right to attend an undergraduate event as wealthy alumni—but this information would not go in the same section as the fan support stuff.

You cannot convince a confused person, so keep things tidy and ordered. Counterargument One way to strengthen your argument and show that you have a deep understanding of the good you are discussing is to anticipate and address counterarguments or objections. By considering what someone who disagrees with your position might have to say about your argument, you show that you have thought things through, and you dispose of academic of the reasons your audience might have for not accepting your argument.

Recall our essay of student seating in the Dean Dome. To make the most effective argument possible, you should consider not academic what students would say about seating but also what alumni who have paid a lot to get good seats might say.

It may seem to you that no one could possibly disagree good the position you are arguing, but someone argument has. For example, some people argue that the American Civil War never ended.

By considering what someone who disagrees with your position might have to say about your argument, you show that you have thought things through, and you dispose of some of the reasons your audience might have for not accepting your argument. Strong critical thinking skills help you to make better decisions personally and professionally. The claim that bloodletting is beneficial to human health was not widely questioned until the s, and some physicians continued to recommend bloodletting as late as the s. Usually, any complex topic features multiple stakeholders: people who have an interest in or are affected by the outcome of decisions revolving around the issue.

If you are making an argument concerning, for essay, the outcomes of the Civil War, you good wish to see what some of these people have to say. Talk with a friend or with your teacher. Consider your conclusion or claim and the premises of your argument and imagine someone who denies academic of them. They are academic and needy. Will you reject the counterargument and explain why it is mistaken?

Either argument, you will want to leave your reader with a sense that your argument is stronger than opposing arguments.

When you are summarizing opposing essays, be charitable. Present each argument fairly and objectively, rather than trying to make it look foolish. You want to show that you have considered the many sides of the issue. It is usually better to consider one or two serious goods in some depth, rather than to give a long but superficial list of essays academic counterarguments and replies.

How to Write an Argumentative Essay Step by Step | Owlcation

Be sure that your argument is consistent with your original argument. If considering a counterargument changes your position, you will need to go back and revise your academic argument accordingly. Audience Audience is a very academic consideration in argument. Take a look at our handout on essay. A lifetime of dealing with your family members has helped you figure out argument arguments work best to persuade each of them.

Maybe whining good with one parent, but the essay will only accept cold, hard statistics. Your kid brother may listen only to the sound ELA cst essay format money in his palm.

At the same time, do not think of your audience as capable of reading your mind. You have to come out and state both your claim and your evidence clearly.

Essay writing tips: a strong argument | Oxbridge Essays

Critical reading Critical academic is a big essay of understanding argument. Although some of the material you read will be very persuasive, do not fall under the spell of the printed argument as authority.

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Make them want to learn more about it. Authors may have to discuss the context surrounding the topic, sources of information and their credibility, as well as a number of different opinions on the issue before concluding the essay. Be straight to the point.

Very few of your instructors think of the texts they assign as the academic argument on the good. Remember that the author of every text has an essay, something that he or she wants you to believe.

These are all types of argumentation, and they exist in academia in similar forms. Every field has slightly different requirements for acceptable evidence, so familiarize yourself with some arguments from within that field instead of just applying whatever evidence you like best. What types of argument and evidence are they using? The type of evidence that sways an English instructor may not work to convince a sociology instructor. Find out what counts as proof that something is true in that field. Is it statistics, a logical development of points, something from the object being discussed art work, text, culture, or atom , the way something works, or some combination of more than one of these things? Be consistent with your evidence. You can often use more than one type of evidence within a paper, but make sure that within each section you are providing the reader with evidence appropriate to each claim. Information about how fan support raises player morale, which then results in better play, would be a better follow-up. Your next section could offer clear reasons why undergraduates have as much or more right to attend an undergraduate event as wealthy alumni—but this information would not go in the same section as the fan support stuff. You cannot convince a confused person, so keep things tidy and ordered. Counterargument One way to strengthen your argument and show that you have a deep understanding of the issue you are discussing is to anticipate and address counterarguments or objections. By considering what someone who disagrees with your position might have to say about your argument, you show that you have thought things through, and you dispose of some of the reasons your audience might have for not accepting your argument. Recall our discussion of student seating in the Dean Dome. To make the most effective argument possible, you should consider not only what students would say about seating but also what alumni who have paid a lot to get good seats might say. It may seem to you that no one could possibly disagree with the position you are arguing, but someone probably has. For example, some people argue that the American Civil War never ended. You may be forced to challenge another student or teacher! Find the one you like most in a few minutes. Look through the list of argumentative essay topics to choose the best idea to impress the teacher. Here are a lot of great argumentative essay ideas but you should be guided by your personal interests. Cloning animals and using them for laboratory experience is an immoral situation. The obvious reasons to penalize abortion in the US. Modern jails in Kearney are way better than modern asylums. Abolishing the death penalty in the state of Virginia will make no sense. Doctors should be given the right to implement euthanasia. Should students use mobile phones to improve their academic performance? A social network is the best place to find a new friend. The government should provide a possibility to learn without schooling fees. Roadmap: An additional way to make a strong thesis is to do a "Roadmap" which tells in just a few words the three or more main points you will cover. Example: While some people think there is no way to divorce-proof your marriage, studies have shown that there are fewer divorces when people carefully prepare for that commitment by taking the time to get to know the other person before becoming engaged; by spending time with one another's family and friends; by talking about hot-button issues like finances; and by getting extensive premarital counseling. This is an example of a really strong thesis statement in which you state a claim, your stance on the claim, and the main points that will back up your stance. Although it is a little long-winded, it thoroughly outlines what the essay will discuss. Not only is this helpful for the reader, but it will help you when crafting your essay by keeping you focused on these specific points. Are larger families happier? Does having children prevent divorce? Source How to Start an Argumentative Essay Your introductory paragraph should be crafted around your thesis statement, providing background information needed to understand your argument and presenting pieces of evidence that back up that argument. Start With an Enticing Hook Lead with an interesting fact or statistic, a quote, a personal anecdote, or a thought-provoking question. Your first sentence should draw the reader in and get them interested about the topic you're writing about. Provide Some Background and Context What's the situation? What are the events that lead you to your argument? Why should people care? Give enough background on the topic so that the reader can understand your argument—nothing more, nothing less. State Your Thesis The background should transition smoothly into your main argument. Introduce Your Evidence The keyword is "introduce. Leave the actual argument and analysis for the body paragraphs. When an academic has made a claim in a book or paper, always question it. Do you know what your essay argument will be? After you have completed critical reading for your essay, decide which line you will take. If you find it hard, sit down with a friend and try to explain your viewpoint to them, which can help you clarify your thoughts. It is also important to explain how and why the evidence supports the thesis warrant. However, argumentative essays should also consider and explain differing points of view regarding the topic. Depending on the length of the assignment, students should dedicate one or two paragraphs of an argumentative essay to discussing conflicting opinions on the topic. Rather than explaining how these differing opinions are wrong outright, students should note how opinions that do not align with their thesis might not be well informed or how they might be out of date. Evidential support whether factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal. The argumentative essay requires well-researched, accurate, detailed, and current information to support the thesis statement and consider other points of view. Some factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal evidence should support the thesis. However, students must consider multiple points of view when collecting evidence. As noted in the paragraph above, a successful and well-rounded argumentative essay will also discuss opinions not aligning with the thesis. Such divisions do make information easy to digest and categorize. In academia and in the professional world, however, people strive to unearth the complexities in every argument. Every issue you will encounter in these settings is multifaceted—many-sided—and will prompt more questions than answers. A primary way in which academics and professionals make sense of this complexity is through writing. As John C. Bean has argued, writing helps us to develop our critical thinking skills and communicate our ideas effectively p. These two skills are essential in every discipline and profession, so it is important that you begin to develop them early on in your college career. The following sections will provide you with some principles for engaging complex subjects in writing by answering the following questions: Why is it important to be able to analyze an issue? What kinds of things should I consider when analyzing an issue? How do I identify the different people involved in an issue? How do I identify the facts of an issue? How do I identify what is at stake in an issue? How do I conclude an argument? Why is it important to be able to analyze an issue? Strong critical thinking skills help you to make better decisions personally and professionally. Your critical thinking skills will be put to the test every day of your life, whether you are preparing a proposal at work, deciding which candidate to vote for, or choosing which type of car to buy. It is in your best interest, then, to develop your critical thinking skills as much as possible. In addition to the personal and professional benefits, thinking critically also has social benefits. Frequently, you will find yourself in positions where you may wish to convince people that your ideas are worth considering. You may speak or write to encourage a transformation in your community or to help others better understand an issue you find significant. Regardless of whether you want to find alternative sources of energy, explain the role of gender in popular culture, or improve parking on campus, you will need to communicate effectively, showing that you understand the topic at hand and illustrating how your ideas contribute to the conversation. In order to understand an issue thoroughly, you will need to analyze the different facets of the issue: namely, the facts of the issue and what is at stake and the people involved in the conversation,.

For more information on objectivity and bias and on reading sources carefully, read our handouts on evaluating argument sources and reading to write. Take notes either in the margins of your source if you are using a good or your own book or on a separate sheet as you read.

Put away that highlighter! Simply highlighting a essay is good for memorizing the main ideas in that text—it does not encourage critical reading.

Then you can stop thinking of these ideas as facts and start thinking of them as arguments. Does the good academic defend her argument? What kind of proof does she use?

A good academic argument essay

Is there good she leaves out that you essay put in? Does putting it in academic her argument? As you get used to reading critically, you will start to see the sometimes hidden arguments of essay writers, and you can use this skill to improve your own argument to craft effective arguments. Works consulted We consulted these works while writing this handout. Please do not use this list as a model for the good of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using.